BY1: Biological molecules - Carbohydrates.

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  • carbohydrates
    • Monosaccharides
      • General formula of: (CH2O)n.
        • Name is determined by number of carbon atoms in molecule (n).
      • Hexose sugars
        • Glucose
          • Forms two isomers, alpha and beta.
        • Same formula (C6H12O6) different molecular structure
      • Source of energy - In respiration carbon-hydrogen bongs are broken forming ATP
      • Building block for larger molecules e.g. glucose forms cellulose.
    • Disaccharides
      • Two monosaccharides with a glycocidic bond. CONDENSATION REACTION
    • Test for sugars:
      • Add blue benedicts solution and heat.
        • If reducing sugar present (glucose) turns red/orange colour.
    • Polysaccharides
      • Starch
        • Insoluable unlike glucose which would cause unneccasary osmosis
          • Testing for the presence of starch: Add iodine should turn blue/black if present.
      • Cellulose
        • Structural polysaccharide, found in cell walls.
        • Long parallel chains of beta glucose.
        • 60-70 cellulose molecules form microfibrils.
        • freely permeable which allows water and solutes to penetrate through the membrane.
      • Chitin
        • includes amino acids so forms an muco-polysaccharide.
        • Strong, waterproof and light weight


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