the role of hormones/genes and evolution on gender role

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  • Created by: Atlanta
  • Created on: 04-01-13 11:44
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  • Biological influences on gender (1)
    • role of genes/hormones
      • A01 GENES -female xx, male xy, direct link between chromosomal sex and external/internal genitalia, in male testes produce testosterone.
        • A02 - Reiner & Gearhart - studied 16 genetic males born with no penis, 2 raised as males others raised female - 8 reassigned themselves as males by 16 years old, suggests biology more important.
        • A02 - John Money - study on David Reimer whos penis burned off and raised female still wanted to be male wasn't normal and reassigned himself when told the true - supports biology.
      • A01 - HORMONES, gender development governed by prenatal hormones, intersex individuals exposed prenatally to abnormal hormone levels. Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) - some individuals do not respond to xy hormones so no external genitalia develop. genetic females exposed prenatally to large doses of testosterone develop ambiguous genitalia.
        • A02 - Imperato- mcginley et al - Batista family - 4 children raised as girls with girl genitals but during puberty rush of testosterone meant they developed a penis and male appearance - they had AIS and accepted changing to male - had experiences this with other family members
        • REAL WORLD APP - olympics no longer use genes to identify sex so AIS participants can take part.
      • A01 BRAIN DEVELOPMENT - males have spacial navigation females better at language and social skills. some evidence that sex differences are caused by testosterone exposure in developing brain.
        • A02 - Quadango et al - found females monkeys deliberatly exposed to testosterone during prenatal development later engaged in more rough and tumble play and were more aggressive than other females.
    • evolutionary
      • A01 - Division of labor, complimentary division of labor enhances reproductive success and important in avoiding starvation. may explain why humans survived and Neanderthals didn't.
        • AID - deterministic - determins males will be hunter gatherers and females homemakers however it could just predispose us to these roles.
      • A01 - Mate choice, many gender role behaviours linked to reproductive strategies. males seek physical attractiveness,females seek resources. gender role behaviours linked to enhance these characteristics.
        • A02 - Waynforth & Dunbar - used personal ads to assess what people were looking for/ advertising as - found 44% of males sought physically attractive partners compared with 22% of women, 50% of women offered attractiveness but only 34% of males did.
      • A01 - Cognitive style - empathising (females)/ systematising (males) linked to selection pressures.
        • A02 Baron- cohen made a questionaire to show difference sex cognitive styles - men were more systematisersfemales more empathisers - only 17% of males had a female empathising brain and vice versa.
        • A02 - Baron- cohen suggests autistic people may have a extreme male brain - he found they had a high scoring systematising brain but low on empathising.


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