bio explanations of ag

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  • BIOLOGICAL EXPLANATIONS FOR AGGRESSION
    • GENETICS
      • ADOPTION STUDIES - +VE CORRELATION BETWEEN CHILDS AGG BEHAVIOUR & THAT OF BIOLOGICAL PARENT - suggests strong genetic influence. if STRONGER between ADOPTIVE PARENT - ENVIROMENTAL INFLUENCE
        • MILES AND CAREY - adopted boys with crim. convictions had bio parents with crim convictions
          • highest rates of crim violence when both bio and adopted parents have history of violent crime - ENVIRONMENT INFLUENCE contribution
        • METHOD MAY LACK RELIABILITY - FOUND LESS GENETIC INFLUENCE WHEN USING OBSV. METHOD COMPARED TO PARENTAL OR SELF-REPORT
      • TWIN STUDIES - MZ SHARE ALL GENES - more alike than dz in terms of agg behav - genetic influence - MILES AND CAREY STRONG GENETIC INFLUENCE - meta anal 24 twin & adopt studies
        • ENVIROMENT DOES HAVE IMPACT - YOUNGER individuals, both genetic & enviroment influences contributes to agg. -older - genetics more important at determining agg behav (miles and carey)
        • SUPPORT - RHEE & WALDMAN - 51 twin &adoption studies - meta-anal - concluded agg product of genetic contributions
      • ROLE OF MAOA - GENE resposible for PRODUCING MAOA associated with aggresion - maoa regulates serotonin - low lvls=agg.
        • SUPPORTED BY BRUNNER ET AL - STUDY VIOLENT DUTCH FAMILY - MEN ABNORMALLY LOW LVLs OF MAOA - more PRONE to COMMINT VIOLENT ACTS
        • DIFFICULT DETERMINING ROLE OF GENETIC FACTORS - MORE THAN 1 GENE CONTRIBUTES TO ANY GIVEN BEHAVIOUR - OTHER INFLUENCES THAT INTERACT - VALIDITY
      • GENE -ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION - CASPI ET AL identified 2 versions of MAOA gene - those associated with low levels of MAOA more likely to show agg beh - ONLY IF MALTREATED AS CHILDREN
        • RLA - CHEMICAL CASTRATION TO 'TREAT' VIOLENT OFFENDERS DUE TO POSSIBLE GENETIC INFLUENCE
          • ETHICAL ISSUES - LABELLING AS THREAT TO SOCIETY - EVIDENCE FAR FROM CONCLUSIVE
    • NEURAL
      • HIGH LEVELS OF DOPAMINE - demonstrated by use of AMPHETAMINES - increase dop level - LAVINE - INCREASE IN AGG.
        • SUPPORT - BUITELAAR ET AL - ANTIPSYCHOTICS - REDUCE DOP - REDUCED AGG
        • INCONCLUSIVE EVIDENCE - CONSEQUENCE NOT CAUSE - COUPPIS & KENNEDY - dop RELEASED as +VE REINFORCER when engaged in agg beh to SEEK OUT more agg encounters
      • LOW LEVELS OF SEROTONIN - usually INHIBIT RESPONSE to STIMULI that otherwise lead to agg. Low level = increased susceptability to impulsive & agg behav
        • SUPPORT - DRUGS that DEPLETE SEROTONIN lvls - DEXELENFLURAMINE - AGG BEHAV INCREASE
        • SUPPORT - ANTIDEPRESSANTS - INCREASE SEROTONIN levels, should decrease agg - BOND found link in clinical studies
    • HORMONAL
      • HIGH LEVELS OF TESTOSTERONE incrase agg - DABBS - CRIMINALS VIOLENT CRIME HISTORY - found with HIGH TEST LVLS
        • GENDER BIAS - males - ARCHER ET AL - STRONG LINK for FEMALES - SUCCESSFUL CAREER WOMEN
        • MANY STUDIES found NO LINK - INCONSISTENT EVIDENCE - LACKS RELIABILITY - many SMALL SAMPLES of men in prisons - self report - social desirability bias
      • LOW LEVELS OF CORTISOL LINKED to increase agg - INHIBITS TESTOSTERONE - Tennes & Kreye - LOW LVLS of CORT in VIOLENT SCHOOL CHILDREN - TEST MAIN BIOCHEM INFLUENCE - CORT HAS EFFECT
        • MODERATING EFFECT SUPPORTED by MCBURNETT ET AL - BOYS with LOW cort lvls were 3X amount of AGG SYMPTOMS than those with higher cort lvls
        • WHY RELATIONSHIP EXIST? - LOWER CORT LVLS - LESS AFRAID OF PUNISHMENT - NO ANXIETY - NO AVOIDANCE

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