Biological offending

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  • Biological Explanation of Offending
    • Brain Damage
      • Damage to pre-frontal cortex may cause problems controlling aggression
    • Twin Studies
      • LANGE- Mz's showed greater concordance criminal behaviour than DZ's
      • Christiansen- Studied 3586 twins
        • Male concordance: 35%MZ, 13% DZ
        • Female Concordance: 31% MZ and 8% DZ
      • DALCARD & KRINGLEN- 26% MZ, 15% DZ
      • Evaluation
        • Concordance of 35% means environment could be a factor or possibly a trigger like the Diathesis Stress Model
        • Concordance rates tell us biology is a factor of criminal behaviour
          • However, if nature was the only influence the concordance would be 100%
    • Adoption Studies
      • CROWE- Almost 50% of adopted children whose biological mothers had a criminal record, had a criminal record themselves by 18
      • Problems
        • Some kids are adopted by relatives
        • Do not know if child has contact with biological parents
        • Small sample sizes; hard to find adopted child and biological parents
        • Do not consider what age they are adopted, different if a child is adopted from birth than at 10 y.o.

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