Biological Rhythms

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  • Biological Rhythms
    • Circadian Rhythms
      • Driven by...
        • Internal Pacemakers
          • Suprachias-matic Nucleus
        • Exogenous Zeitgebers
          • External
          • Light
      • 24 Hour Cycle
      • Siffre
        • 25 hour Circadian Rhythm
        • Regular Sleep/Wake Cycle
      • Aschoff and Wever
        • WW2 Bunker
        • Circadian Rhythm of 24 - 25 hours
      • Evaluation
        • Practical Application to Shift Work
        • Practical Application to Drug Treatment
        • Case Studies and Small Samples
        • Poor control in research studies
        • Individual differences may be an influence on results
    • Infradian Rhythms
      • More than 24 Hour Cycle
      • Female Menstrual Cycle
        • 28 Days
        • Stern and McClintock (1998)
          • 29 women with irregular periods
          • Pheromones taken at different stages via a cotton pad
            • Cleaned with alcohol and rubbed on lips of the other women
          • 68% of women experienced changed to their cycle
      • Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)
        • Seasonal Pattern
          • Winter months due to lack of daylight
        • Depressive Disorder
      • Evaluation
        • Research on the Menstrual Cycle shows its evolutionary values
        • Ultradian Rhythms
          • Less than 24 hours
          • 5 Stages of sleep
            • Stages 1 and 2 - Light Sleep
            • Stages 3 and 4 - Deep Sleep
            • Stage 5 - Rapid Eye Movement (REM)
        • Methodology used in synchronisati-on studies
        • Evidence supports qualitatively different stages in sleep
        • Research in this area is the use of animal studies
        • Research into SAD is its practical application
    • Ultradian Rhythms
      • Less than 24 hours
      • 5 Stages of sleep
        • Stages 1 and 2 - Light Sleep
        • Stages 3 and 4 - Deep Sleep
        • Stage 5 - Rapid Eye Movement (REM)
    • Endrogenous Pacemakers and Exogenous Zeitgebers
      • Endogenous Pacemakers
        • The Suprachiasmatic nucleus
        • DeCoursey et al (2000)
          • Chipmunks
        • Ralph et al. (1990)
          • Hamsters
      • Exogenous Zeitgebers
        • Light
        • Campbell and Murphy (1998)
        • Social cues
      • Evaluation
        • Research into the SCN is that it may obscure other body clocks
        • Use of Animals
        • Influence of exogenous zeitgebers may be overstated
        • Methodological issues in exogenous zeitgebers research
        • Endogenous pacemakers and exogenous zeitgebers interact
    • Disruption to Biological Rhythms
      • Jet Lag
      • Shift Lag

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