Biological Molecules- momomers, polymer and carbs

BM 2 and 3 also avalible (lipids and proteins/enzymes)

  • Created by: gsemma
  • Created on: 08-01-19 15:49
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  • Biological Molecules 1
    • Bonding
      • Covalent
        • Atoms share a pair of electrons- strong when neutral charge- forms molecule
      • Ionic
        • between two charged ions- weaker than covalent
      • Hydrogen
        • Due to uneven distribution of elecrtons and polarity- Electrostatic bond forms between opposite dipoles- weak alone- strong together
    • Polymers
      • More than 2 monomers joined but Polymerisation
      • Proteins, carbs and lipids are polymers
      • formed by condensation with water being a by-product
      • broken down by hydrolysis that requires water as reactant
    • Disaccharides
      • two monosaccharides chemically bonded with a glycosidic bond
      • Maltose
        • 2 Alpha Glucoses
      • Sucrose
        • Alpha glucose and fructose
      • Lactose
        • Beta glucose and galactose
    • Benedict's test
      • Reducing Sugar
        • all mono and some disacchrides
          • Add excess of Benedict's reagent (blue) and heat in bath at 80'C
            • A coloured precipitate indicates reducing sugar (blue to brick red)
      • Non-reducing sugar
        • break down sugar into redicing sugar by adding hydrochloric acid in boiling water bath.
          • neutralise the sample wit Sodium hydrogen carbonate
            • perform test above
    • Polysacchrides
      • starch
        • main energy source for plants- break down glucose when they need it
          • many chains either straight or branching
          • Insoluable as to not affect osmosis
          • large so does not diffuse yet compact so can be stored in small places in high volumes
          • branching allows many enzymes to break it down at once- faster.
          • Hydrolysed to alpha glucose which is soluble and easily transported
        • Test- iodine- *** 2 drops of potassium iodide to sample- browny-orange to blue-black
        • Made of amalyose and amylopectin
      • glycogen
        • Main energy source of animlas
          • broken down into alpha glucose
            • highly branched to allow more efficnt energy release as there are more end fort he enzymes to pinch off
              • compact
              • similar to amylopectin which is less branch
      • cellulose
        • Long unbranched chains of beta glucose - makes up cell walls
          • linked by hydrogen bonds forming microfibrils- strong to provide structural support.
    • Monosacchrides
      • Carbohydrates are made of monosaccharides e.g. sugars
        • Alpha Glucose
          • Symbol
            • C H  O
          • Bonds in glucose contain a lot of energy for animals and plants.
            • Structurally it is ideal as it is soluble making it easy for transport in organisms an cells
            • Hexose sugar 6-carbons
              • Alpha Glucose
                • Symbol
                  • C H  O
                • Bonds in glucose contain a lot of energy for animals and plants.
                  • Structurally it is ideal as it is soluble making it easy for transport in organisms an cells
                  • Hexose sugar 6-carbons
          • Beta Glucose
            • Symbol
              • C H  O
          • Ribose
            • C H  O
            • Pentose sugar 5-Carbons
            • RNA is made using ribose

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