Biological Molecules

  • Created by: echebben
  • Created on: 23-04-18 19:20
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  • Biological Molecules
    • Water
      • Polar
      • Metabolite
      • Solvent
      • High heat specific capacity
      • Relatively large latent heat of vaporisation
      • Strong cohesion between molecules
      • Ice is less dense than water
    • Carbohydrates
      • Only carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
      • Long chains of sugars, saccharides
        • Monosaccharaides
          • Can join to form disaccharides and polysaccharides
            • Glycosidic bonds, condensation reactions
      • Monosaccharides
        • Glucose
          • Main substrate for respiration
          • Two isomers - alpha and beta
      • Glycogen
        • Animal energy storage
    • Lipids
      • Only soluble in organic solvents
      • Saturated
        • Animal fats
        • Don't contain double bonds
        • Solid at room temperature
      • Unsaturated
        • Plants
        • Double bonds
        • Liquid at room temperatre
      • Triglycerides
        • One glycerol. three fatty acids
        • Energy reserves in plants
        • Ester bonds
      • Phospholipids
        • One fatty acid in triglyceride replaced by phosphate group
        • Hydrophilic head, hydrophobic tail
    • Proteins
      • Amino acids
        • Peptide bond
      • Primary structure
        • Order of amino acids
      • Secondary structure
        • Alpha helix or beta pleated sheet
      • Tertiary structure
        • 3D  shaoe
          • Globular or fibrous
    • Inorganic ions
      • Hydrogen - pH
      • Iron ions - haemoglobin
      • Sodium ions - co-transport of glucose
      • Phosphate ions - component of DNA
  • Monomers and Polymers
    • Monomers
      • Monosaccharides
        • Glucose
      • Nucleotides
    • Biological Molecules
      • Water
        • Polar
        • Metabolite
        • Solvent
        • High heat specific capacity
        • Relatively large latent heat of vaporisation
        • Strong cohesion between molecules
        • Ice is less dense than water
      • Carbohydrates
        • Only carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
        • Long chains of sugars, saccharides
          • Monosaccharaides
            • Can join to form disaccharides and polysaccharides
              • Glycosidic bonds, condensation reactions
        • Monosaccharides
          • Glucose
            • Main substrate for respiration
            • Two isomers - alpha and beta
        • Glycogen
          • Animal energy storage
      • Lipids
        • Only soluble in organic solvents
        • Saturated
          • Animal fats
          • Don't contain double bonds
          • Solid at room temperature
        • Unsaturated
          • Plants
          • Double bonds
          • Liquid at room temperatre
        • Triglycerides
          • One glycerol. three fatty acids
          • Energy reserves in plants
          • Ester bonds
        • Phospholipids
          • One fatty acid in triglyceride replaced by phosphate group
          • Hydrophilic head, hydrophobic tail
      • Proteins
        • Amino acids
          • Peptide bond
        • Primary structure
          • Order of amino acids
        • Secondary structure
          • Alpha helix or beta pleated sheet
        • Tertiary structure
          • 3D  shaoe
            • Globular or fibrous
      • Inorganic ions
        • Hydrogen - pH
        • Iron ions - haemoglobin
        • Sodium ions - co-transport of glucose
        • Phosphate ions - component of DNA
    • Polymers
      • Monomers joined together
    • Condensation reaction
      • Joins monomers together, removes water
    • Hydrolysis
      • Water is added, monomers seperate

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