Biological explanations of crime and anti-social behaviour

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  • Biological explanations of Crime and Anti-social behaviour
    • Introduction
      • Application of psychological knowledge to understand crime and anti-social behaviour
      • Crime is an act that is against the law
      • Recidivism is persistent reoffending
      • Anti-social behaviour is acting in a manner that caused or could cause harassment, alarm or distress
      • Male age crime curve shows that most criminal behaviour occurs between ages 14-25 with a peak of 17
      • Gender difference
        • Evolution - Males have evolved to become violent risk takers. Females evolved to become carers
        • Social Learning theory - Bandura says people are more likely to copy same-sex models.
    • Brain Injury
      • Types of brain injury
        • ABI - Acquired Traumatic Brain Injust
          • Caused by a force eg blow to the head
      • Brain
        • Pre-Frontal Cortext
          • Stops inappropriate behaviour. Problem solving. Motivation
        • Frontal Lobe
          • Memory. Control in voluntary movement
      • Phineas Gage
        • Got an ABI after an explosion resulting in a metal rod through his brain
        • Change in personaltiy. Likeable man -> Rude and vulgar
        • Personality returned to normal over time
      • Gender difference
        • Evolution - Men got into more fights to impress the femals
    • Amydala
      • Located in the limbic system
      • Cannon et al severed neuron connections in cat's brains
      • Charles Whitman
        • Had cancer in the limbic system
        • Killed 14 people in a mass shooting at Uni of Texas
      • Reine et al
        • To see if there is a difference in brain function between murderers and non-murderers
        • There was reduced activity in the pre-frontal cortex for murderers
    • XYY
      • 1 in 1000 males
      • Extra Y chromosome - 47 chromosomes in total
      • More physically active
      • Lower intelligence and behaviour problems
      • No evidence of a criminal gene
    • Personality
      • Eysenck
        • Extraversion - Outgoing, socialable
        • Psychotocism- Aggressive, Lack of empathy, cold
        • Neuroticsm- Tough, aggressive, moody
        • Eysenck personality inventory (EPI)
        • Personality is based on biological factors which suggests there is no free will
        • Reliable as Tiwari et al(2012) achieved similar results
      • Stable characteristict that underlie consistencies in the way we behave

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