Biological explanation of dysfunctional behaviour

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  • Biological explanation of DB
    • Genes
      • May inherit predispostionfor DBs
        • Involves them having a gene but it is not 'switched on' - external factors trigger it
          • For example, depression gene gets switched on by bullying
          • Those with the DRD4 gene are more likely to be diagnosed with schizophrenia
            • Known as 'epti-genetics'
              • For example, depression gene gets switched on by bullying
    • Neurotransmitters
      • Chemical messengers that transmit signals from a neuron to a target cell across a synapse
        • Serotonin and norepinephrine are related to depression - they have lower levels of these neurotransmitters
        • Anxiety linked to noradrenaline
        • Dopamine and GABA linked to schizophrenia
          • Parkinson's research - a drug used to increase dopamine levels brought out schizophrenic-symptoms in non-schizophrenics
            • Led to the discovery that schizophrenics have higher dopamine levels
    • Brain anomalies
      • Schizophrenics have larger ventricles in their brains - causes DB
      • Disorders such as schizophrenia are caused by viral infections in the growing foetus
        • More likely to occur during the winter months
    • Gottesman and Shields
      • Aim: review research on twin, family and adoption studies for a genetic cause of schizophrenia
        • Method: review article of 3 adoption and 5 twin studies
          • Procedure: comparing biological parents and siblings with adoptive
            • In twin studies, concordance rate was compared for monozygotic and dizygotic
              • Findings: children with an adoptive parent with schizophrenia did not develop it
                • Findings 2: In twins, MZ concordance rate was 58% and DZ was 12%
                  • Conclusion: More closely related you are to someone with schizophrenia, the more likely you are to develop it

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