Biological Approach

View mindmap
  • Biological Approach
    • genotype is an individual's genetic makeup which occurs at conception and provides genetic code for how the person will develop
      • the only people who do not have individual genotypes are monozygotic twins
        • monozygotic twins are identical twins
        • dizygotic twins are non-identical twins
      • the complex interaction between nature and nurture affects the way genotype is expressed and developed
    • phenotype is the product of what happens when the genotype interacts with the environment
      • an example of this is someone may have an inherited genetic predisposition to a mental illness but environmental triggers e.g. stress may affect whether the genes are affected
    • twin studies allow psychologists to study the interaction between nature and nurture
      • concordance rates are the % of both twins displaying the same characteristics
        • the expectation is that if a characteristic is inherited there will be a higher concordance rate in monozygotic twins
      • Irving Gottesman
        • concordance rates of schizophrenia in monozygotic twins was 48% but in dizygotic twins 17%
      • Craddock and Jones
        • concordance rates for bipolar in monozygotic twins was 40% but for dizygotic twins 7%
      • Walters and Kendler
        • concordance rates for anorexia in monozygotic twins was 23% but 9% in dizygotic twins
      • concordance rates for mental illnesses in twins suggests genetics do play a role but don't tell the whole story - the closer someone is genetically related to someone with a disorder, the more likely they are to get it
      • twins studies allow us to clearly see if genes have an effect on behaviour
    • the nervous system
      • central nervous system
        • consists of the brain and spinal cord
        • transfers messages to and from the environment and act as the centre from which all physiology is controlled
      • peripheral nervous system
        • sends and receives information to the central nervous system - collects information in terms of temperature, pain and threat
      • sends messages around our body through the use of neurons
        • neurons are nerve cells which transmit impulses in the form of electrical signals
    • the endocrine system works to maintain correct levels of hormones in the blood through the use of glands, especially the pituitary
      • the pituitary gland instructs other glands to secrete hormones when required
        • biological psychologists say the level of hormones in the endocrine system can affect the behaviour of a person
          • hormones are chemicals which travel through the blood
    • the theory of natural selection says any behaviours that ensures survival and reproduction will be passed on to future generations
      • Buss
        • mate choices have evolved because they lead to reproductive success
          • women desire men with resources as it shows they can provide for them and offspring
          • men desire young attractive women as it indicates fertility
    • this approach is bias-free as it is scientific so we can test hypotheses and retest findings
    • research into the role of chemical imbalance in those with depression has led to the development of drug treatments which correct this and minimise the symptoms of depression

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Approaches resources »