Biological Approach to Smoking and Gambling

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  • Biological Approach to Smoking and Gambling
    • Gambling
      • Intitiation
        • Role of Genetics
          • Pathological gambling runs in families
          • Twin study by Shah et al
            • found evidence of genetic transmission of gambling in men
          • Black et al
            • first degree relatives of Pathological gamblers more likely o suffer than distant
              • Demonstrates genetic link
          • A02
            • Genetics can explain indvidual diffrences
              • explains why two people who have same enviroment only one may develop
                • some are more vulnerable because of genetic predisposition (Diathesis-stress model)
            • ignore environmental factors
              • ignores importance of external factors (peer pressure)
              • biological plus external
      • Maintenance
        • The pituitary - adrenal response
          • pathological gambling associated with an underactive pituatry adernal response
          • Paris et al
            • no cortisol increase in pathological gamblers
              • before and after video of preferred gambling
          • A02
            • explanatory limitations
              • cant explain why some types of gambling iis more addictive than others
              • Breen and Zimmerman
                • 1 year to become addicted to online gambling
                • 3 years for  horse racing
            • reductionist
              • complex phenoman of gambling down to just genes
                • good because shows family history of addiction
                • bad because it ignores other potential influences (social context)
        • Sensation - seeking
          • zuckerman
            • claimed that there are individual differences in need for optimal stimulation
            • high sensation seekers have a lower appreciation of risk
              • seek arousal as more positive then low sensations -seekers so are more likely to gamble
          • A02
            • Research evidence
              • Bonnaire er al
                • pathological gamblers who ber at race tracks had higer scores on sensation scores then whose at café games
                  • concluded two subgroups of gamblers
                    • (racetrack) excitement
                    • (café game) avoid boredom
      • Relapse
        • Boredom aviodance
          • Blazzcynski et al
            • found poor toletance for boredom may lead to repetitive gambling
              • pathological gamblers had higher boredom proneness scores than control gruop
              • no change between types of gambling
    • Smoking
      • Initiation
        • role of genetics
          • Family and twin studies estimate heritability of tobacco smoking between 39% and 80%
          • Vink et al
            • individual differences in smoking initiation
              • 44% genetic
              • 56% environment
          • Boardman et al
            • identical twins and same sex fraternal twins estimate heritability for regular smoking 42%
        • A02
          • effectiveness of medication moderated by genetics
            • smokers with Asp40 variant of the mu-opioid gene are 2x likely to quit smoking with nicotine therapy replacement
            • smokers with more common Asn40 variant are equally likely to stop smoking regardless of NRT
            • genetic testing might allow appropriate cessation therapy to maximize likelihood of quitting successfully
      • maintenance
        • effects of nicotine
          • Vink et al
            • regular tobacco use is linked to individual differences
            • Nicotine causes release of dopamine, which creates short lived feelings of pleasure
              • repeated toa avoid withdrawl
        • prenatal exposure to nicotine
      • Relapse
        • xian et al
          • found 54% for quit failure is attributed to heraitability
          • research has attempted to identify specific gene clusters associates with quit success and nicotine dependence
            • aim of matching specific anti smoking tratments
        • A02
          • genetic approach has implications for treatment
            • those at higher genetic risk for addiction should change behavior
              • screening is unlikely as not enough is known about link

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