Biological Approach

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  • Created by: M4nny
  • Created on: 29-07-17 13:45
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  • Biological
    • Assumptions
      • understand beh throu biological structure & processes = genes, neurochem, NS
      • brain structure & function explain thoughts & beh incl feelings
      • explained via biological mechanisms = hormones, neurotransmitter, genes
      • psychological = biological
    • Mechanism of heredity genes influence beh
      • genes carry instructions for certain characters eg temperament = genes code for structure of NS & functioning = neurochem, amount of NT, produced & way used
      • Heredity = passing characters from one gen through genes
    • Twin studies
      • MZ twins = mono-zygotic share 100% genes but phenotype differ even treated same n gender same eg wear same clothes. 1 usually bigger than other
      • DZ twins = dizygotic share 50% genes, treated diff cos differ gender, friendship. Share same env't like other siblings
      • Concordance rate = proportion pairs where both individuals share certain characteristic. MZ higher CR than DZ = support genetic basis. 100% genetically determined
      • Family studies = use adoption studies to determine whether kid is schizophrenic genetically. Parent schizo and child = genetic but child not = env'tal. Kids share 50% genes w/ parents
    • Genotype & Phenotype
      • Genotype =  set of genes person posses eg eye colour
      • Phenotype = characters of individuals determined by genes & env't eg hair dyed
      • Differences = nurture vs nature = beh depends upon interaction between env't & inherited
        • PKU genetic disorder affects ability to break down substances in food = strict diet avoid sub = phenotype & don't avoid severe learning difficulties
    • Influence of bio structures on beh = neurons & NS
      • PNS = NS carries messages from 1 - other using neurons & beh controlled by neurons = breathing & eating & compromises somatic auto NS
      • CNS = brain -spinal cord messages
    • Brain = largest part = cerebrum (85%) = cerebral cortex =outer structure = responsible for high order functions = thoughts & lang
    • Influence of neurochem. on beh
      • Hormones = chemical messengers produced= endocrine gland = pituitary glands = together make endocrine system
      • neurotransmitters = travels from 1 neuron -  next  junction (across junction)  = nerve impulses reaches end of 1 neuron = chem. called NT released
    • neurotransmitter
      • Exictatory = NT triggers immediate response = dopamine / serotonin
      • Inhibitory = NT slows nerve impulses & calm brain & balances mood
    • AO3
      • Scientific Methods of Investigation
        • Scanning techniques, studies using drugs, family, twins = make use of highly scientific methods to study genetic bio basis of beh = acc. measure biological & neural process = not bias = reliable data
      • Nurture VS Nature
        • surprise variable = exposed to similar envt's condt^= nurture = DZ higher CR than ordinary siblings = share 50%  genes = nature : twin studies do not separate nurture or nature
      • Real life application
        • +es understanding of biochem. process in brain = psychoactive drugs developed = treat mental illness (depress^) & rev treatment = live normal lives & manage condit^= symptoms reappear cos stop take treatment *& side effects = not effective for all
      • Deterministic view of beh
        • beh = internal & biological causes = no control = suggest^ for law & society = offenders legally & morally responsible for actions = criminal gene ever found = complicate law
      • Casual conclusion
        • offers explanation for mental illness = action of NT in brain = evi that certain drugs -es symptoms & assume NC in drug causes disorder = claims to discover cause where only associat^ exists = limit explainat^
    • Evolution
      • Evolution & Beh
        • why certain beh.s may evolved among ancestors but difficult to prove & disprove = can only design simple investigation
      • Natural Selection = process whereby animals well adapted to env't  & leave behind +re offspring than those animals less adapted
        • species show varitaion = competition w/ each for food, water, living space, mates etc
          • select 1 possess desirable characters = natural process that is now determined by humans as humans want  certain animals w/ certain traits = +re beef etc
            • genetically determined beh & characters +es chance of survival cos traits give ad = reproduce
          • Those who are most fittest = reproduce +re = most common = beneficial variation = :. more common & other survive but traits not remain in gene pool = disappear
      • evolutionary theory: Genome Lag =env'ts species have adapted to have since changed & continue to change = evolu^ slow process but env't change over night eg Tsunami

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