Bioinorganic Ions Mindmap

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  • Bioinorganic Ions
    • Ni 2+ - Nickel
      • Function
        • Hydrogenase
          • Oxidation of H2 to 2H
          • Nickel is a prosthetic group in the enzyme
            • Non-protein group
        • Hydrolase
          • An enzyme that breaks bonds eg. Urease.
            • Nickel is a cofactor for this and many other enzymes
    • Fe2+ and Fe3+ - Iron
      • Oxygen transport and storage
        • Haemoglobin can absorb and release oxygen in the body.
        • Myoglobin is an oxygen carrying pigment in muscles that can hold on to oxygen until there is a great need for it.
      • Fe2+ is the prosthetic group to the protein that enables it to react with oxygen
        • Fe2+ changes to Fe3+ when it is oxidised and returns to Fe2 when it releases oxygen.
    • Cu2+ - Copper
      • In respiration the electron transport chain generates ATP copper ions
        • Copper ions are part of the complexes in this chain.
    • Na+ and K+ - Sodium and Potassium
      • Osmotic Balance (Osmoregulation)
        • active regulation of the osmotic pressure of an organism's body fluids, detected by osmoreceptors to maintain the homeostasis of the organism's water content
          • it maintains the fluid balance and the concentration of electrolytes to keep the fluids from becoming too diluted or concentrated
        • Achieved by pumping sodium and potassium ions into or out of cells.
          • if there were too many ions in the cells, it would cause water to move into cells
      • a charge carrier is a particle free to move, carrying an electric charge, especially the particles that carry electric charges in electrical conductors
        • used in nerve cells/neurons to generate a potential difference across the neuron membrane - to generate a p.d.
    • Mn2+ - Manganese
      • Photosynthesis
        • Euglena gracilis (Klebs) cultures were grown under conditions where limitation in supply of manganese limited chlorophyll content much more than growth
          • Although the initial rates of photosynthetic oxygen evolution were not affected by the level of manganese, photoinhibition in high intensity light was markedly influenced
      • Oxidase
        • allows it to function
      • Structure
        • Manganese is required by the body for normal growth and health. It helps your body break down fats, carbohydrates, and proteins. In the human body, manganese functions as an enzyme activator and as a component of metalloenzymes
    • Pt2+ - Platinum
      • Chemo
        • Platinum-based antineoplasticdrugs (informally called platins) are chemotherapeutic agents to treat cancer
          • They are coordination complexes of platinum.
          • Used to treat 50% of cancer patients.
          • Inhibits DNA replication
    • Ca2+ - Calcium
      • Charge carrier
        • It has a role in muscle contraction and in release of neurotransmitter from the presynaptic bulb
      • calcium phosphate in the main constituent of bones and teeth
    • Li+ - Lithium
      • Treatment of hypertension and  bipolar disorder
        • They stabilise mood by blocking the synaptic path
        • Taken orally, reduces risk of suicide
        • Many side effects
  • Nickel is a prosthetic group in the enzyme
    • Non-protein group


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