Bioenergetics higher

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  • Created on: 13-11-18 11:31
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  • Bioenergetics (4)
    • 4.1 Photosynthesis
      • 4.1.1 Photosynthesis
        • Photosynthesis takes place inside chloroplasts found in plants and algae. The reaction is endothermic, meaning that it requires energy. The source of this energy is sunlight, which is trapped by a chemical called chlorophyll inside chloroplasts in plant cells.
        • 6CO2 + 6H2O =  C6H12CO6 + 6O2 Carbon dioxide + Water = Glucose + Oxygen
        • Factors that affect the rate of photosynthesis
          • Carbon dioxide: Increasing the carbon dioxide increases the rate of photosynthesis
          • Light intensity: Increasing the light intensity increases the rate of photosynthesis
          • Temperature: Increasing the rate of photosynthesis
          • Chlorophyll concentration: Chlorophyll concentration increases the rate of photosynthesis
    • 1.1.2  Photosynthesis 2
      • Limiting factors in certain conditions
        • Night: At night, light intensity is usually the limiting factor
        • Warm and bright: In warm and bright conditions carbon dioxide concentration is usually the limiting factor
        • Mineral-deficient soil: In mineral-deficient soil, plants don't have the minerals to create chlorophyll.
        • Winter: In winter, temperature is usually the limiting factor
      • Uses of glucose
        • Cellulose is used to strengthen cell walls
        • Seeds store fats and oils for example, sunflower seeds
        • Proteins: Plants get proteins from minerals in the soil and converting them to proteins
        • Starch: Starch is insoluble and is stored in stems, leaves and roots
    • Respiration
      • What is energy needed for
        • Contraction
        • Homeostasis (keeping body temperature constant)
        • Construction from small molecules
      • Respiration is an exothermic reaction (releases energy) that supplies all the energy needed by living organisms. This reaction happens continuously in all living cells. The reaction can be aerobic (with oxygen) or anaerobic (without oxygen).
      • Glucose = Ethanol + CO2 (Aerobic)
      • Glucose + Oxygen = Carbon dioxide + water + energy
      • When there is not enough oxygen in animal cells, glucose is converted into lactic acid
      • Fermentation
        • Glucose = Ethanol + Carbon dioxide
      • Metabolic actions
        • Breaking down excess proteins to form urea
        • Making amino acids
        • Converting glucose
        • Making lipids

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