Biochemistry: Carbohydrates

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  • Carbohydrates
    • Cn(H20)n
    • Monomers: Monosaccharides
      • Smallest unit of carbohydrates
      • Soluble in water
      • Sweet tasting
      • Reducing sugars
        • Test: Benedict's solution. Heated to 80 degrees
          • Blue -green-orange-brick red
      • Glucose
        • Important as it forms lager molecules such as: maltose, starch, glycogen and cellulose
        • Main transport sugar
        • Main respiratory substrate: generates ATP
        • 6- carbon sugar
      • Ribose
        • 5- carbon sugar
        • Found in structure of nucleic acids
        • ATP
    • Dimers: Disaccharide
      • Two monosaccharides joined by a GLYCOSIDIC bond
      • Condensation reaction
        • Makes water
      • Non-reducing sugars
        • Test: Boil in HCl. Neutrailise. Re-add Benedict's solution
      • Maltose
        • Two alpha glucoses
        • 1-4 glycosidic bond
        • Made when starch is digested by enzyme Amylase
      • Sucrose
        • Main sugar transport in plants
      • Lactose
    • Polymers: Polysaccharides
      • Insoluble
      • Not sweet tasting
      • Not sugars (not readily hydrolsed)
      • Starch
        • Energy store in plants
        • Made up of alpha glucose
        • 1-4 bonds = Amylose (coils into a helix)
        • 1-6 bonds = Amylopectin (more branched)
        • Made from both amylose and amylopectin
        • Compact: large amounts may be stored
          • Energy store in plants
      • Cellulose
        • Structural
        • Beta glucose
        • Linked together alternatively (180 degrees)
          • Beta glucose
          • Allows hydrogen bonds to form = forms cellulose microfibrils
            • Microfibrils have high tensile strength
      • Glycogen
        • Energy store in animals
        • Alpha glucose
        • More highly branched therefore can release glucose at faster rates

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