Bio T5 Non-communicable diseases

View mindmap
  • Non-communicable diseases -  can't be transmitted between individuals
    • Risk factors
      • Age & gender (unavoidable)
      • Lifestyle factors  (avoidable)
        • Too much alcohol causes liver disease as broken down by enzymes in liver & some products toxic causes permanent liver damage after a long period of time drinking too much
        • Diet with too many or too few nutrients causes malnutrition
        • Not exercising enough, having a diet high fat & sugar
          • Obesity
            • BMI-Body Mass Index = mass(kg) / (height (m) )2
              • Not always reliable measure obesity e.g. person with lots muscle which has higher mass than fat so have higher BMI but not overweight
            • Waist-to-hip ratio = waist circumference           (cm)                   ÷             hip circumference (cm)
              • Measure visceral fat (abdominal) which puts you at greater risk of obesity-related health problems
              • Results not affected by bone density or muscle
    • Cardiovascular disease - any disease associated with heart or blood vessels
      • Treatments
        • 1.)Lifestyle changes
          • Healthy balanced diet low in saturated fat
          • Exercise
          • Stop smoking
          • Recommended first as have no downsides
        • 2.) Drugs
          • Statins
            • Reduce cholesterol in blood ,slows rate fatty deposits form reducing risk heart attacks & strokes
            • Negative side effects e.g aching muscles and liver damage
          • Anti-coagulants
            • Blood clots less likely to form
            • Causes excessive bleeding if person injured
          • Anti-hypertensives
            • Reduce blood pressure prevents damage to blood vessels and reduces fatty deposits
            • Side effects e.g. headaches & fainting
        • 3.) Surgery
          • Stents
            • Tubes inserted in arteries to keep open so blood can pass to heart muscles, lowers risk heart attack
            • Artery can narrow again as can irritate artery, make scar tissue grow
            • Patient must take drugs to stop blood clots on stent
          • Coronary bypass surgery
            • Blood vessel blocked, healthy vessel taken from elsewhere can bypass blocked section
          • Donor heart
            • Drugs taken stops body rejecting it, can cause side effects e.g. vulnerable to other infections
            • Major procedure, risk of bleeding, clots, infection
      • 1.) High blood pressure damages artery
        • 2.) Cholesterol & fat in blood builds up in damaged area, lumen (space inside an artery) size decreases, blood pressure increases
          • 3.) Red blood cells stick to each other, blood clot forms, oxygen can't reach tissue after clot & may die if this is in heart, muscle stops contracting & person has heart attack
    • e.g Cancer, liver & lung disease, cardiovascular disease & diabetes


No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all Health & Disease resources »