bio 1,2,3,5

  • Created by: Simbaaax
  • Created on: 11-06-17 02:42
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  • Bio 1,2,3,5
    • Module 2
      • TEM= 0,0002 +x1,000,000
      • golgi- makes lysosomes, new lipids and proteins packed
        • rough ER, large SA for ribosomes, fold & process protein
          • prokaryotes= circular DNA, no nucleus, pollysaccaride cell wall, flagella, no membrane bound organelles
      • carbs- glycogen= polysac, store in animals, short +branches, liver + muscle cells
      • carbs- cellulose, B glucose, chains, microfibrils, macrofibrils. 1,4 glycosidic, 180o
      • carbs - starch, insoluble (storage :)), long straight amylose + branched amylopectin, store in chloroplasts
      • triglycerides= lipids, macromolecules, ester bonds via esterification (condesation reaction) Break bond via hydrolysis// energy storage,long HC chains release tres energy, insoluble
      • cholestrol; polar hydroxyl group, flattened
      • fibrous protein ; strong, insoluble, e.g.collagen, keratin, elastin
      • RNA- ribose sugar, uracil replace thymine, single chain
    • Module 5
      • Excretion
        • Metabolic waste = CO2 and nitrogenous waste
        • Kupffer cells= remove bacteria + break down old RBC's
          • reflexes: BLINKING; optical+corneal = cranial, rapid, can be inhibited
            • reflex; KNEE JERK, spinal, slower, cant be inhibited
        • Functions of liver= convert excess glucose to glycogen + stores as granules, break down excess aa
          • Excess aa = deamination = NH2 removed, form NH3 and organic acid. Organic acid respired to ATP or carbs. NH3 + CO2 into ornithine cycle
            • Ornithine cycle = NH3 + CO2 -> citrulline + H20 (via carbomoyl phosphase) (Happens in liver mitochondria). Citrulline + NH3 to arginine + H2O via ATP. Arginine + H2O to ornithine and urea. Ornithine keeps cycle going (Happen in cytoplasm of hepatocytes)
          • liver
        • 1) blood from renal artery 2) ultrafiltration 3) selective readsorption in PCT 4) unwanted stuff removed via tubules to ureter then urethra 5) filtered blood leaves via renal vein
          • Selective reabsorption: PCT has microvilli for large S.A.. Glucose, aa, vitamins + salts reabsorbed via A.T and facilitated D Urine= water, dissolved salts, urea, hormones, excess vitamins
          • Kidney failure- detect via glomerular filtration rate (low = bad)
      • Neuronal communication
        • action potentials : resting potential, generator (-55mV), threshold, depolarisation, actional potential (self perpetuating - continues indefinetly), repolarisation, hyperpolarisation, return to resting, refractory period (impossible to stimulate)
          • acclimatisation= running out of vesicles, =fatigued
          • summation= finely tuned response, spatial (several) or temporal (repeated)
      • Hormonal communication
        • protein + peptide (aa e,.g. adrenaline) or steroid (sex e.g. oestrogen)
          • steroids enter cell +direct effect on DNA
            • adrenaline = polar
        • adrenal glands= adrenaline receptor associated w/ enzyme on inner surface  = adenyl cyclase (converts atp to cyclic AMP) cAMP = second messenger
        • adrenal medulla = catecholamine hormomes , pain+shock, relax s muscle in bronchioles, more glycogen to glucose, short term e.g. adrenaline + noradrenaline
        • adrenal cortex= e.g. cortisol +aldosterone, short + long term, cholestrol to produce steroid hormones. mineralcorticoids = conc of Na+/K+ in blood (blood pressure). Glucocorticoids = control metabolism of carbs + proteins in liver, suppress immune system
          • capsule 3 layers; zona reticularis (inner, precursor for sex hormones) , zona fasiculata (mid- secrete glucocorticoids), zona glomerulosa (outer, mineralcorticoids)
        • pancreatic duct = amylase, lipase, trypsinogen
        • insulin = more glucose channels to cell mambrane, more glycogenesis, more glucose in respiration
          • regulating insulin= B cells have Ca2+ and K+ ion chanels in membrane (-70mV) K+ usually open & out, Ca usually closed. Glucose high, dissolves in cells, atp conc high K+ channels close, potential diff change, Ca2+ open, secretion of vesicles insulin; exocytosis
        • treat diabetes mellitus: stem cells, genetically engineered, low risk infection + rejection
      • plant responses; biotic= living
        • Auxins = promote cell elongation, inhibit side shoot, inhibit leaf abscission cytokinins = promote cell division gibberellins= seed germination, grow stems abscisic acid = inhibit seed germination + growth, stomatal closure when stress (low H2O), ethene= fruit ripens
          • nastic responses = non-directional responses
            • synergy = hormones amplify eachothers effect
          • plant growth - meristems; apical, lateral bud, lateral, intercalary (between nodes)
            • cell division closest to apex, cell elongation behind apex, cell elongation proportional to auxin conc
              • auxin work= active transport H+  via ATPase in plasma membrane in cell wall. low pH= optimum for wall loosening exnymes (expansins); break bonds in cellulose, low pH disrupts H bonds in cellulose, wall less rigid & expands as cell takes in h2o
                • commercial use = auxins (cuttings, seedless fruit, herbicides). gibberellins (fruit product, brewing, sugar product, plant breeding), cytokinins (delay senescence, tissue culture) ethene (fruit ripening, female sex expression)
      • Photosynthesis
        • coloured substances absorb light energy at diff wavelengths, attached to proteins in thylakoid// photosystem = protein + pigment
        • accessory pigment = surround reaction centres +transfer light enegry to boost enegry to e- excitement
          • cyclic photophosphorylation = only produces ATP, only uses PS1
        • Calvin cycle- in stroma, uses= starting synth of carbs, lipids, aa. Recycling TP for RuBP supply. 6 turns of calvin makes 1 hexose sugar.
          • factors affecting photosynthesis: light intensity, temp, CO2
      • muscles
        • skeletal = many nuclei, striated.
        • smooth = one nucleus, spindlel, unconscious, dont fatigue
        • cardiac = myogenic, one nucleus, intercalated disks, dont fatigue


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