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  • Bhangra
    • Rhythm, Metre and Tempo
      • 4/4 Time Signature
      • Each crotchet beat is divided into three (e.g triplet quavers)
      • Most important rhythm is the chaal
      • Fast tempo (140-180 bpm)
    • Melody
      • Small range of notes.
      • Vocal melodies often fall at the end of a phrase.
      • Ornamented
      • Microtonal intervals
      • Lyrics are sang in Punjabi
    • Structure
      • Verse-and-chorus
      • Instrumental introduction
    • Instru-mentation
      • Dhol - double headed drum
      • Sarangi - a bowed string instrument
      • Tumbi - plucked string instrument with only one string
      • Sitar - a plucked string instrument with a very long neck.
      • Modern Bhangra has instrument used in western pop music : guitar, electronic keyboard, synthesiser and drum machine.
    • Key Features
      • Date of origin (traditional) : hundreds of years ago.
      • Date of origin (modern) : 1980s
      • Place of origin (tradition) : Punjabi region
      • Place of origin (modern) : UK
      • Famous performers : Alaap, Malkit Singh and Punjabi MC
      • Dance Steps (traditional) : In groups often in a circle. Moves copied farmers' actions. Energetic steps acrobatic stunts in all male dances.
      • Dance Steps (modern) : Improvised individually in nightclubs.


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