Symphony Fantastique by Berlioz

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l7chHNocFAc 

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  • Berlioz Symphony Fantastique
    • Forces
      • Large symphony orchestra
        • Much larger than the standard at that time
        • 2 different types of horn, as it was more difficult to change keys back then
        • LINK to Wagner Ring cycle
      • Extended techniques
      • Idiomatic writing
    • Structure
      • Sonata form
        • Slow introduction (as typical of the time)
        • Exposition
          • b 63
        • Development
          • Develops both 1st and 2nd subject
          • b 166
        • Recapitulation
          • b232
        • Coda
          • b 475
      • Subject 1 and 2 very similar
      • LINK to Mozart 40th symphony mov. 1
    • Tonality
      • C minor
        • This is before he has seen Harriet-, hence is minor and is sad
      • Modulates to the tonic major, then returns to C minor b 24
      • Frequently obscured by chromatisicm
      • Development  starts in G major, however is particularly chromatic so obscures tonality
      • Recapitulation begins in G major
      • Ends in tonic major
    • Harmony
      • Tonic pedal b46
      • Generally diatonic and functional, however lots of chromatisicim
        • e.g. dim 7 chords b22
        • dom 7 b146
        • Reflects the emotional artist
      • Perfect cadences used frequently to confirm modulations to new key
      • Mov ends with repeated plagal cadences
    • Rhythm
      • Largo
      • Originally in common time then goes to cut common in bar 64
      • Changes tempo regularly
        • LINK to Tchaik 6 (probably)
      • Heartbeat rhythm first heard b78 then returns in recapitulation (b240) and is more intense
    • Melody
      • Sigh motif which is heard throughout (e.g b6) is an anticipation of the idee fix
      • Falling and rising melody and chromaticism reflects the intoxicated state of the artist
      • Faster passages represent the termoil
      • In recapitulation of the second theme its is passed through from cellos to violas to 2nds which links so some piece probably
      • End passage before the final idee fix on the flute is obsessive
      • Exposition
        • Idee fixe first introduced bar 72 in flutes
      • Development
        • Chromatic strings against the wind and brass playing another sighing motif
        • It is put in the lower string and modulated representing more extreme moods
    • Texture
      • Highly varied
      • Monophonic texture when the Idee fix is first heard

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