Bentham's Theory Of Utilitarianism.

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  • Bentham's Utilitarianism Theory.
    • Teleological vs. Deontological.
      • Teleological
        • Utilitarianism- A philosophical system concerned with consequences rather than motives and in which the happiness of the greatest number should be the result
        • Situation Ethics- The moral theory proposed by Joseph Fletcher which requires the application of love to every unique situation.
      • Deontological
        • Kantian ethics- Immanuel Kant consisting of the idea of the categorial imperative or the belief that certain commands should be followed universally.
        • Natural Law- Aquinas' ethical system from Aristotle, in which good is defined by acts which are within our common human nature.
    • Absolutism
      • -Believe that there are moral truths that are fixed for all time and all people.
      • -That moral actions are right and wrong within themselves irrespective of culture, circumstances or opinion.
      • - Follow the good and avoid evil.
      • - Absolutist acts can be teleological or deontological.
    • Relativism
      • - Believe that moral truth varies depending on culture, time, place or religion.
      • - That there is no fixed moral reality that applies to everyone, or if there is, it cannot be found.
      • - They believe that morals are subjective to culture, religion, time and place.
    • Jeremy Bentham
      • He is primarily known today for his moral philosophy, especially his principle of utilitarianism, which evaluates actions based on consequences.
      • The overall happiness created for everyone affected by the action.
        • Democracy, the industrial revolution and technology developing played a key role in his theory. Bentham was concerned with the workers and social change.
      • He famously held a hedonistic account of both motivation and value according to which what is fundamentally valuable and what ultimately motivates us is pleasure and pain.
      • He was the founder of utilitarianism, which evaluates actions based upon their consequences. The overall happiness created for everyone affected by the action. 'Hedonistic' ultimately motivates us in pleasure and pain.
        • "The greatest happiness principle" moral theory.
    • Utilitarianism
      • Educated happiness with pleasure and the absence of pain.
        • "It is for the alone to paint out what we ought to do as well as to determine what we shall do"
      • Three parts of the theory.
        • 1) Motivation - His view on what drove human beings and what goodness and badness is about.
          • Act Utilitarianism according to which the rightness or wrongness of individual acts are calculated by the amount of happiness resulting from the act.
            • This links to motivation, hedonism is the pursuit of pleasure, motivated by pleasure. Bentham observed children which showed that they are motivated by pleasure.
          • This links to motivation, hedonism is the pursuit of pleasure, motivated by pleasure. Bentham observed children which showed that they are motivated by pleasure.
        • 2) The principle of utility - Usefulness which is Bentham's moral rule.,
        • 3) The hedonic calculus - which is his system of measuring how good or bad a consequence is.
          • The Hedonic Calculus - Remoteness, purity, richness, intensity, certainty, extent and duration.

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