Behaviourist assumptions (Eduqas Alevel)

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  • Behaviourist assumptions (Eduqas)
    • Humans are born like blank slates
      • All behaviour is learnt from interactions with our environment.
      • Not born with mental content therefore thinking and emotion doesn't drive behavior
      • Ignores genetics, physiology and evolution
      • NURTURE
      • environmental   Determinism
        • Our behaviour is determined by the environment we grew up in
          • Assosiations made early on in life eg dentist=pain and early rewards or punishments heavily influence how we interact with people in later life
        • Assosiations made early on in life eg dentist=pain and early rewards or punishments heavily influence how we interact with people in later life
    • Behaviour is learned through conditioning
      • Classical conditioning
        • Behaviour is learnt through assosiations
        • UCS =UCR  UCS+N=UCR CS=CR
          • The neutral stimulus initially causes no fear, the unconditioned stimulus causes a fear response. By associating the neutral stimulus with the unconditioned stimulus a conditioned response of fear occurs from the neutral stimulus which is now classed as the conditioned stimulus
        • The neutral stimulus initially causes no fear, the unconditioned stimulus causes a fear response. By associating the neutral stimulus with the unconditioned stimulus a conditioned response of fear occurs from the neutral stimulus which is now classed as the conditioned stimulus
      • Operant conditioning
        • Behaviour is learnt through reinforcement
        • Positive reinforcement
          • Positive reinforcement was used by B.F Skinner in the conditioning of a rat. If the rat pulled a lever it would be rewarded with food therefore this behaviour was reinforced due to the reward of food
            • If something pleasant is gained out of doing the behavior
              • Positive reinforcement
                • Positive reinforcement was used by B.F Skinner in the conditioning of a rat. If the rat pulled a lever it would be rewarded with food therefore this behaviour was reinforced due to the reward of food
                  • If something pleasant is gained out of doing the behavior
          • Negative reinforcement
            • Behaviour is reinforced by getting rid of something unpleasant e.g completing homework avoids the unpleasant detention
      • Humans learn in the same way as animals
        • Laws of learning are the same for animals and humans
          • Therefore we can make generalisation about human behaviour from animal lab studies
            • E.g Pavlovs dogs to show classical conditioning
              • Conditioned to salivate whenever a bell was rang due to the built up association with food
        • Therefore we can make generalisation about human behaviour from animal lab studies
          • E.g Pavlovs dogs to show classical conditioning
            • Conditioned to salivate whenever a bell was rang due to the built up association with food
        • Same principles used in therapies for phobias e.g systematic desensitisation
          • New association made with the feared thing
      • Relationship formation
        • Operant conditioning
          • Positive reinforcement - If we receive compliments whilst in a relationship we will continue to spend time with them
            • Negative reinforcement - By being in a relationship it can avoid feelings of loneliness.
              • Punishment - If not in a relationship we might be nagged or receive nasty comments therefore we will want to get into a relationship to avoid this 'punihment'
                • Operant conditioning
                  • Positive reinforcement - If we receive compliments whilst in a relationship we will continue to spend time with them
                    • Negative reinforcement - By being in a relationship it can avoid feelings of loneliness.
                      • Punishment - If not in a relationship we might be nagged or receive nasty comments therefore we will want to get into a relationship to avoid this 'punihment'
          • Classical conditioning
            • Will might associate pleasant feelings and happiness with a particular person or with the whole relationship itself if met in a place that brings happiness
              • E.g if you met someone whilst out dancing you may associate the fun and excitement of your surroundings with that person therefore enticing you into a relationship with them
                • Classical conditioning
                  • Will might associate pleasant feelings and happiness with a particular person or with the whole relationship itself if met in a place that brings happiness
                    • E.g if you met someone whilst out dancing you may associate the fun and excitement of your surroundings with that person therefore enticing you into a relationship with them

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