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  • Behaviourism
    • suggests that all behaviour is acquired and maintained through classical and operant conditioning. 
    • Classical Condtioning
      • learning by association between the unconditioned stimulus and the neutral stimulus
      • Pavlov (1890) demostrates this with dogs
        • When steak was introduced to the dog it caused the dog to salivate
          • Steak= UCS Salvate= UCR Bell= NS
          • The UCS was repeatedly paired to a neutral stimulus thus turning it into a conditioned stimulus
            • Steak=UCS Bell= CS Salivate= CR
      • Little Albert (Watson 1920)
        • When introducted to the rat no fear was shown, however when a loud clang was produced from a hammer hitting steel Albert cried out of fear
          • rat = NS hammer=UCS cry=UCR
          • During conditionig, the UCS was paired with the NS therefore making albert cry whenever the rat was near
            • rat=CS cry=CR
    • Operant conditioning
      • behaviour is shaped by the consequences
      • positive reinforcement occurs when we carry out a behaviour for a reward
        • for eg recieving praise for completing your hw
      • Negative reinforement occurs when we dont behave in a particular way to avoid negative consequences
        • eg not completing hww results in detention
      • Skinner's box () represens positive and negative reinforcement using a rat in a box
        • the rat learnt that pulling the lever down resulted in a snack
        • the rat learn that not pulling the lever resulted in an electric shock


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