# Statistical Concepts

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• Basic Statistical Concepts
• Statistical Models
• aim of stats is to take data and make sense of it
• Mean
• simplest statistical model
• the models we construct are guided by our hypotheses and research designs
• Scientific Method
• Observation
• Gather information and form hypotheses
• Test hypothesis
• analyse data and draw conclusions
• Report findings to other scientists
• Further research and theory building
• Formulate hypotheses from theory
• Population
• anyone and everyone we're interested in
• Sample
• Random sampling  is important to obtain a representative sample
• Its important to report sampling method and sample characteristic
• Convenience
• Systematic
• Cluster
• Stratified
• Sampling Error
• Degree of bias or imperfection in the study
• Causes differences between the results and conclusions for our sample
• Variable
• 'a property of an object or event that can take on different values
• Variables should be specific and measurable
• Catergorical
• Natural or artificial categories; can only take on few values
• Continuous
• can take on any value between the highest and lowest possible values
• Hypotheses
• A prediction, formulated as a statement
• Qualitative research answers a research question
• Qualitative Methods
• Analyse material for consistent themes
• Gather numerical data to test the hypothesis using stats
• Scales of Measurement
• Nominal Scales
• Names and Labels
• Ordinal Scales
• Orders and ranks
• Interval Scales
• True differences between values: Total scores on anxiety
• Ratio Scales
• True differences between the values and a true Zero point
• Histogram
• shows range of the data
• Shows frequency of different data points
• Analysing Data
• Descriptive Stats
• describe the main numerical features of a set of scores
• Inferential Stats
• findings from these tests allow us to make inferences about the population
• Measures of Deviation
• Dispersion, deviation or variance
• Variance
• square all deviations giving all positive values
• Standard Deviation
• square root of the variance for the sample