Statistical Concepts

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  • Basic Statistical Concepts
    • Statistical Models
      • aim of stats is to take data and make sense of it
      • Mean
        • simplest statistical model
      • the models we construct are guided by our hypotheses and research designs
    • Scientific Method
      • Observation
      • Gather information and form hypotheses
      • Test hypothesis
      • analyse data and draw conclusions
      • Report findings to other scientists
      • Further research and theory building
      • Formulate hypotheses from theory
    • Population
      • anyone and everyone we're interested in
      • Sample
        • Random sampling  is important to obtain a representative sample
        • Its important to report sampling method and sample characteristic
        • Convenience
        • Systematic
        • Cluster
        • Stratified
    • Sampling Error
      • Degree of bias or imperfection in the study
      • Causes differences between the results and conclusions for our sample
    • Variable
      • 'a property of an object or event that can take on different values
      • Variables should be specific and measurable
      • Catergorical
        • Natural or artificial categories; can only take on few values
      • Continuous
        • can take on any value between the highest and lowest possible values
    • Hypotheses
      • A prediction, formulated as a statement
      • Qualitative research answers a research question
    • Qualitative Methods
      • Analyse material for consistent themes
      • Gather numerical data to test the hypothesis using stats
    • Scales of Measurement
      • Nominal Scales
        • Names and Labels
      • Ordinal Scales
        • Orders and ranks
      • Interval Scales
        • True differences between values: Total scores on anxiety
      • Ratio Scales
        • True differences between the values and a true Zero point
    • Histogram
      • shows range of the data
      • Shows frequency of different data points
    • Analysing Data
      • Descriptive Stats
        • describe the main numerical features of a set of scores
      • Inferential Stats
        • findings from these tests allow us to make inferences about the population
    • Measures of Deviation
      • Dispersion, deviation or variance
    • Variance
      • square all deviations giving all positive values
      • Standard Deviation
        • square root of the variance for the sample


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