Basic Human Reproduction Anatomy 1

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  • Basic Human Reproduction Anatomy
    • Uterus
      • Hollow, Muscular
      • Pear shaped
      • Mechanical protection for a developing embryo/foetus
      • Nutritional support
      • Responsible for contractions
      • Waste removal
    • Ovaries
      • Pair of glands
      • Pair of oocytes
      • Secretion of hormones
      • Elliptical structure (2-4cm long)
      • Outer/ Inner connective tissue- stroma
      • Small central medulla: nerves and blood vessels
    • Fallopian Tubes
      • Muscular and end in a funnel-shaped depository the infundibulum
      • Finger-like projections (fibriae)
      • Cilia- help to sweep a fertilized oocyte to the uterus
    • Cervix
      • Lower third of uterus
      • Physical barrier between vagina and uterus
      • changes through cycle
    • Female Reproductive System Anatomy
      • Breasts/ mammary glands
      • "Accessory reproductive organs"
        • 15-20 clusters of glands that become active during and after pregnancy
    • Pheromones
      • Lower odor communication- small olfactory bulb in the brain
      • Suppressed sense of smell in modern society
    • Ovarian Cycle: Preparation for Fertilisation
      • Average of 28 days (counted from the first day of menstruation)
      • Females are born with all the oocytes they will ever have
      • Females at sexual maturity- 20,000 primary oocytes left in each ovary
      • 450 ovarian cycles
      • Menstruation begins at puberty (around 12-15 years old)
      • Menopause marks the end of a female's fertility (around 50 years old)
    • Ovarian and Uterine Cycles
      • Growth and breakdown of the endometrium in parallel to ovarian cycle
      • 28th day- no blastocyst? Breakdown of endometrium
    • Male Reproductive System Anatomy
      • Primary sex organs produce and deliver semen - spermatozoa
      • Accessory organs: ducts, glands
      • Hormonal control: maintenance of reproductive functions, dominated by androgens
    • Scrotum
      • Pouch of skin holding testes
      • Outside body cavity
      • Optimum temperature for spermatozoa
      • Muscles in scrotum contract at lower temperatures and relax when hot
    • Penis
      • Three cylinders of spongy erectile tissue (modified veins)
      • Erectile tissue fills up with blood- creates pressure
      • Closes off the vessels (stops blood drainage)
    • Penis Bone
      • Most mammals
      • Copulation still depends on the erectile tissue
    • The Testes
      • Production of sperm and testosterone
      • Six cell types
      • 250-300 seminiferous tubules up to a metre long each (80% mass)
      • Five types of developing sperm cells
      • Sustentacular cells- Sertoli cells
    • Semen
      • Sperm cells only constitute 5% of semen volume
      • Mixture of fluids that support sperm and facilitate fertilisation
      • Ejaculated semen coagulates
      • Anticoagulant- sperm swim through reproductive tracts
      • Sperm production is an ongoing process that takes 74 days
    • Male Pathway
      • Testes
      • Epididymis (monitors and adjusts fluid; stores and protects sperm)
      • Vas Deferens (40-45cm long, transportation of mature sperm to urethra)
      • Ejaculatory duct
      • Urethra (18-20cm long, begins in bladder-> outside of body)

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