Phagocytosis - barriers to entry

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  • Barriers to entry
    • A protective covering
      • the skin covers the body surface which pathogens find hard to penetrate
    • epithelia covered in mucus
      • Many epithelial layers produce mucus, which acts as a further defence against invasion.
    • Hydrochloric acid in the stomach
      • This provides a low pH that the enzymes of most pathogens are denatured and therefore the organisms are killed


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