• Created by: xholliexd
  • Created on: 25-02-20 09:27
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  • Baptism
    • Religious identity through diversity in Baptism
      • Most Christian denominations regard the practice of baptising infants as a traditional custom. Augustine wrote that it was a tradition received from the Apostles as a means of removing original sin
      • The Council of carthage in 418 CE declared...
    • Infant baptism
      • "Therefore go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit" - Matthew 28 17-20
        • Encourages infant baptism
        • Starting Christianity at a young age
      • John 3:5 Jesus tells Nicodemus: "Tell you; no one can enter the Kingdom of God without being born of water and spirit: His words include infants.
      • Luke 18:15-16: "people were bringing even infants to him that he might touch them;.. Jesus called for them and said, "Let the little children come to me, and do not stop them; for it is to such as those that the kingdom of God belongs."
      • Acts 2:30-39: Peter said to them, 'Repent, and be baptised everyone you in the name of Jesus Christ so that your sins may be forgiven; and you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit. For the promise if for you, for your children.
      • Augustine
        • Baptism is a sacrament, imparting spiritual grace
        • Infants who are not yet able to imitate Christ, are "ingrafted" into his body
        • Christ gives to believers the grace of his spirit 'which he secretly infuses even into infants.'
        • Parents present the infant - up to the church to accept them.
        • Without Baptism and participating in the Eucharist 'it is impossible for anyone to attain either to the Kingdom of God or to salvation and life eternal
        • baptism = 'the sacrament of regeneration'
        • Council of Mileum, quoting Paul in Romans 5;12, 'Sin came into the world through one man, and death came through sin, and so death spread to all because all have sinned'
        • The Council asserted that, 'on account of this rule of faith, even infants, who in themselves thus far have not been able to commit any sin, are therefore truly baptised unto the remission of sins, so that which they have contracted from generation may be cleansed in them by regeneration.'
      • Zwingli
        • never any controversy regarding infant baptism in the protestant reformation
        • however, Huldrych Zwingli (1484-1531), the leader of the protestant reformation in Switzerland, differed in some views regarding infant baptism
        • Baptism 'cannot contribute in any way to the washing away of sins'
        • baptism seals the remission of sin
        • the divine promise is guaranteed to young children on the basis of their parents' pledge to bring them up in the Christian faith
        • baptism is a sign of belonging to the new covenant, usually by aspersion. It replaces circumcision which was a sign of belonging to the old.
    • Believers baptism
      • the reformation made way for a diverse group of radical reformers who began baptising adults who had made a profession of their faith
      • the name Anabaptists (meaning rebaptisers) was given to the group by its persecutors
      • Catholics and protestants interpreted it as 'rebapsting' and the council of trent denounced it in 1547
      • believers baptism is usually by immersion (baptising by immersing the candidates body while in water)
      • acts 8:12, the Samaritans are baptised after they believe the good news preached by Philip.
      • Acts 19:5-6, the disciples of John the Baptist are baptised after they accept Paul's teaching about Jesus
      • Acts 8:35-36, the Ethiopean enuch is baptised after he believes
    • Karl Barth; Baptism as a union with Christ
      • Barth endorsed believers' baptism
      • Baptism doesn't bring human salvation, but does bring testimony to salvation by its symbolic representation of renewal in Christ.
      • Baptism with water = 1st step of a life with Jesus
      • It is a response to baptism in the spirit (Gods grace in converting  individuals
      • It is not a sacrament but rather a human action that acknowledges the sacrament of the history of Jesus
      • Baptism seals the reality of Gods grace
      • It is a free act as it is a human response to Gods grace - there can be no suggestion of coercion as this undermines obedience
      • Infant baptism is misguided because it is coercive - the individual baptised isn't necessarily ready or willing
      • Infant baptism = "clouded baptism"
      • Responses to Barth
        • Barth knew his views would cause controversy: 'this book which...will be my last publication, will leave me in...theological and ecclesiastical isolation'
        • Moltmann supported him and endorsed the importance of faith.
        • Ferguson (1996) - Baptism is understood as a confessional expression of faith and repentance, rather than a "work" that earns salvation.
        • T.P. Forsyth - both infant baptism and believers baptism should be equally recognised
        • Peter Bruner (1968) -baptism unites people in his body, regardless of whether they are infant or adult
        • Augustine - infant baptism is the sacrament of regeneration
        • Council of Trent denounced Anabaptism in 1547


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