Bandura Study

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  • Bandura Study
    • Background
      • Past studies = kids learn by observation
        • Only shown kids imitating in same situation w/ adult present
      • Concerned with learning of gender-specific behaviours
        • Boys more likely than girls
    • Hypotheses
      • Kids w/ aggressive model = more likely to be aggressive
      • Kids w/ a non-aggress model = less likely to be aggressive than no model
      • Imitate more aggression from a same-sex model
      • Boys more likely than girls to imitate
    • Aims
      • Investigate observational learning of aggression
      • Would kids reproduce behaviour w/o model present
      • Boys more likely than girls?
    • Participants
      • 72 kids from Stanford Uni nursery
      • Aged 37 to 69 months
    • Design
      • Laboratory w/ matched pairs design and independent measures
        • Kids were matched on aggression, scale 1-5
          • Researcher & teacher achieved 0.89 agreement
      • IVs = model behaviour and sex, kid's sex
    • Procedure
      • 1. Modelling the behaviour
        • Brought individually into a playroom
        • Invited to join game for 10 mins
        • In aggressive = adult  modelled novel phys & verb aggression to 5ft Bobo
          • Hit with mallet
          • "Kick him...pow......sock him on the nose"
        • In non-aggress = assembled toys, didn't interact w/ Bobo
      • 2. Aggression arousal
        • Kids taken to another room alone
        • Had good toys - fire engine, cable car, spinning top
        • After 2 mins told they couldn't play
          • For the best children
          • Increases chances of aggressive behaviour
      • 3. Testing for delayed imitation
        • Kids were observed for 20 mins w/ experimenter in the room
        • Observers watched through mirror, every 5 secs assessed for aggression
          • Aggressive gunplay
          • Sits on Bobo
          • Non-imitative verbal aggression
        • Room had range of toys (same place each time) includ. a 3ft Bob doll
        • Observers didn't know which condition each kid was in
    • Conditions
      • Aggressive Male (same sex)
      • Aggressive Male (opp. sex)
      • Aggressive Female (same sex)
      • Aggressive Female (opp. sex)
      • Non-aggress Male (same sex)
      • Non-aggress Male (opp. sex)
      • Non-aggress Female (same sex)
      • Non-aggress Female (opp. sex)
      • Control (no model)
    • Results
      • 3 types of aggression seen
        • Imitative - phys and verb
        • Partially imitative - similar behaviour
        • Non-imitative- not demonstrated by models
      • Kids w/ aggressive model = more verb & phys imitative (& non-imitative in most cases)
      • Very little difference between non-aggress and control
      • Boys = more imitate aggress w/ same sex
        • Girls only are when it's verbal & non-imitative
      • Boys = more aggress than girls physically & verbally
    • Conclusions
      • Witnessing aggression =  enough to produce it
        • Used to believe learning it was gradual & operant conditioning
      • Kids selectively imitate specific behaviour
        • Boys =  more likely than girls to imitate, but girls not more likely to imitate same-sex aggression
          • Only cautiously conclude kids only selectively imitate same-sex model
    • Evaluation
      • Protection from physical & psychological harm
        • Not an ethics issue however seeing angry adult may upset them
      • Consent- doesn't explicitly say he got it
      • Ecological validity- not real aggression, usually reasoning & consequences
    • Explanations
      • Kids already knew it, but it just became okay when adults did it
        • Expect more non-imitative aggression
          • Some- mostly similar to that already seen
            • Suggests it was learnt

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