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  • Bandura
    • Theories
      • SLT says behaviours are learned through reinforcement and observation
    • Background
      • Previous research showed that children will imitate behaviour with a model present, but nothing about them being absent
      • The aim was to show that behaviour will be imitated in absence of models
      • There were 4 hypotheses, kids with aggressive models will be more aggressive and vice-versa, boys will be more aggressive and kids will copy same-sex models more
    • Research method
      • Lab experiment with independent measures/ matched pairs
      • There were 3 IV's, sex of model, sex of child and aggressive/ non-aggressive model
      • DV was the amount of imitated aggression
      • DV was measured by male researchers and researcher watching at 5 second intervals through a one way mirror
      • Ps' were pre-rated for aggression by the researcher and kids teachers and matched
      • Ps' were randomly assigned to the two conditions/ control
    • Sample
      • 72 kids 36 boys and girls)
      • Mean age 52 months
      • From Stanford Uni Nursery
    • Procedure
      • Room 1: Children played with potato prints/stickers for 10 mins. There was either no model, an aggressive model or a model ignoring the Bobo doll
      • Room 2: children were aggressively aroused. They were given nice toys and said they weren't allowed to play with them, but they were allowed to play in the next room
      • Room 3: children were taken into a room with toys and observed through a one way mirror for 20 mins and imitative/ partially imitative/non imitative and none aggressive behaviour was recorded
    • Findings
      • Children in the aggressive condition were significantly more aggressive than the controls
      • Children in the aggressive condition sometimes showed more non-imitative aggression (not significant)
      • Boys imitated boys more with physical aggression, girls imitated girls more for verbal aggression
      • Male models had more influence than female models
      • Boys were more physically aggressive than girls
    • Conclusions
      • Children will imitate behaviour, even if the model is not present
      • Children lean behaviour through observation and imitation
      • Male models have a greater influence than female models (especially with physical aggression)
      • Verbal aggression is learned more often through the same sex models

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