Balancing Conflict

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  • Balancing Conflict
    • The Terai region
      • How
        • WWF with Nepalese government work together on the Terai-arc landscape programme
        • Forests initiatives were introduced in which local people had rights to exploit the forest as well as responsibility to look after it
        • They created forest corridors between national parks
        • They have been counteracting poachers and illegal felling
        • Small credit and marketing schemes were set up
        • Biogas plants and wood efficient stoves set up by WWF to reduce demand for firewood
        • Construction of water holes
        • Monitoring endangered species
        • Eradicating invasive species
      • Positive consequences
        • Community involvement combined with government and non-governmental (WWF) leadership appears to have been successful
        • Nepal tigers are using the corridors between national parks, and their population size is steadily growing
    • The Maasai Mara
      • How
        • After creation of national parks in 1945, remaining Maasai land was held in trust until 1968, when the lands were designated as "group ranches"
        • Many Maasai took individual title over smaller portions of land
          • This triggered land-use change, including intensification of agriculture
            • This limited wildlife to increasingly small islands and constrained the mobility of livestock
              • Untitled
        • Several landowners to the north of the Maasai Mara Reserve consolidated their land to form conservancies
      • Positive consequences
        • The density  of other wildlife has dropped 65% over he last 30 years while, density of sheep and goats has increased
        • Partnerships between conservancies and tourism operators have developed payment for wildlife conservation (PWC) schemes
      • Negative Consequences
        • Landowners have to move their livestock out during the tourist season
        • This increases stock densities outside the reserve where no one receives any income
        • Landowners can be forced to settle elsewhere
        • There are constraints on how they can use their land
    • Why
      • Conservation may limit access to resources(e.g. wood for fuel or building on green belt land)
      • Conservation may prevent hunting in designated areas or globally (e.g. elephants for their tusks)
      • Conservation may put in place borders that local communities do not recognise (particularly nomadic groups)


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