Unit 2 Section 4.1 A Balanced Diet

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  • Balanced Diet
    • What is a Balanced Diet?
      • To stay healthy its important you have a balanced diet.
        • A balanced diet gives you the right amount of all the nutrients you need, plus fibre and water.
          • there are 5 important nutrients - Each Nutrient has different functions in the body
            • Carbohydrates
              • Provide Energy
            • Fats
              • Act as an energy source, provide insulation, make up cell membranes, and physically protect organs
            • Proteins
              • Needed for Growth the repair of tissues and to make enzymes
            • Vitamins
              • Different Vitamins have different functions, EG Vitamin D is needed for calcium absorption, Vitamin K is needed for blood clotting
            • Mineral Salts
              • Different mineral salts have different functions EG iron is needed to make Haemoglobin in the blood, calcium is needed for bone formation
    • Malnutrition
      • Malnutrition is caused by having too little or too much or some nutrients in your diet
      • There are 3 causes
        • 1) Not having enough food, so you get too little of every nutrients
        • 2) Malabsorption - this is where your body isnt able to absorb the nutrients from digestion into your bloodstream properly. this causes defieciencu ilnesses
        • 3) Having an unbalanced diet - an unbalanced diet may contain too little of a nutrient and this can lead to deficiency ilnesses
    • Obesity
      • Over -nutrition can lead to obesity - a condition defined as being 20% over the recommended body weight
      • It is a serious condition as it can increase the risk of developing Type 2 diabetes, arthritis, high blood pressure, coronary heart disease and sometimes a form of cancer
      • The main cause of obesity is eating too much sugary or fatty food and getting too little exercide
      • people can also be obese due to an under active thyroid gland
    • Coronary Heart Disease
      • CHD, is the result of reduced blood flow to the heart and can lead to chest pain and heart attacks
      • its caused by atherosclerosis - the narrowing and hardening of the coronary arteries
      • Diets that are high in cholesterol and salt can increase the risk of atherosclerosis and CHD
      • Blood Cholesterol Levels
        • Cholesterol is a lipid made in the body, but we also get some from our diet
          • Some cholesterol is needed for the body to function normally
            • Cholesterol needs to be attached to a protein to be moved around so the body forms lipoproteins - substances composed of both proteins and lipid
              • The body is able to regulate its total blood cholesterol level using lipoproteins - there are two types
                • Low Density Lipoproteins - these are mainly lipids
                  • They transport cholestrerol from the liver to the blood where it circulates until needed by cells. their function is to increase blood chholesterol when the level is too low
                • High Density Lipoproteins
                  • HDL's are mainly protein. they transport cholesterol from body tissues to the liver where its recycled or excreted
                    • there function is to reduce blood cholesterol when the levis is too high


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