Background to the Cold War

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  • Created by: Norsefire
  • Created on: 30-03-16 17:05
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  • Background to the Cold War (pre-1945)
    • 1941
      • Hitler invades the USSR - Stalin now on the same side as Britain
      • December: Japan attacks Pearl Harbour - US joins the war
      • Grand Alliance is formed. Ideologies are set aside, realism the dominant ideology. Focus on the present.
    • 1943
      • Teheran Conference
        • Grand Alliance meet
        • Discuss Poland - provisional govt. waiting in London - USSR resistant
        • USSR wanted UK/USA to open a second front, but they refused
        • Strains never too serious - held in good spirits
    • 1944
      • Percentages (Naughty) Agreement
        • Stalin and Churchill meet in October to discuss interests in Eastern Europe using percentages
      • By this stage - a power vacuum in Europe had increased tensions and ideologies remained opposed
      • WWII had put isolationist US and USSR on world stage
    • 1945
      • Soviet attitudes
        • Main aim: to safeguard and rebuild the USSR
        • Policy was to try and capture as much of Eastern Europe as possible to strengthen Soviet influence
          • Wanted to create a buffer zone to protect against invasion.
        • Wanted to regain territories lost to Germany and hold onto land gained by Nazi-Soviet Pact.
        • Wanted economic help from USA
      • US attitudes
        • Roosevelt believed in compromise with the USSR. He had a good relationship with Stalin.
        • Truman inexperienced - adopted a more hostile policy (containment). Reaction against British appeasement.
        • US underestimated Soviet desire for security
      • Events
        • UN formed
          • Based on Wilsonian Liberal principles
          • Aim - to be an organization of free, democratic states
          • Opening of markets seen as essential to US after the war
        • Yalta
          • Stalin, Churchill, Roosevelt meet
          • Agreements
            • Germany, Berlin, Austria divided
            • UN formed
              • Based on Wilsonian Liberal principles
              • Aim - to be an organization of free, democratic states
              • Opening of markets seen as essential to US after the war
            • Principle of free elections agreed in Eastern Europe
            • USSR joins war against Japan - granted half of Sakhalin and economic rights in Manchuria in exchange
            • Poland's borders settled. USSR given significant amounts.
              • Poland main source of disagreements. Stalin allowed London govt. into coalition and promised free elections
        • Molotov-Truman talks
          • Truman tells Molotov that the USSR must stick to Yalta agreements
            • Truman 'insulted' Molotov - showed Stalin that Truman was taking a harder line than Roosevelt.
        • Potsdam Conference
          • Truman, Churchill, Attlee, Stalin meet
          • Roosevelt had died; Churchill had been replaced by Attlee.
          • Truman hadn't informed Stalin about the atom bomb, which increased Soviet distrust.
        • Atomic Bomb dropped on Hiroshima
          • Stalin became distrustful. He became hardened against the West but didn't soften his policies.
      • World War II
        • Created a power vacuum, devastated Europe, highlighted emergence of US/USSR as major powers

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