Bach Chorales

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  • Bach Chorales
    • Harmonizing the Complete Chorale
      • 1.Identify the key throughout the exercise
        • Atleast 1 phrase will modulate/cadence to a new key
      • 3.Choose chords for 1st part of phrases - write in bass
        • Work from beginning - good join
        • 1st Chord = same as pause chord from cadence
        • I and V(7) and inversions are most useful
          • Inversions add variations
        • Strong progressions = roots fall in 5ths
        • Modulations should start from the beginning of the phrase
      • 4. Add inner parts and check (inc. consecutives)
      • 5. Add Decoration
        • Opening melody hints at what to use
        • Not in pause chords
        • Check they haven't added consecutives
    • General Rules
      • Much use of primary triads in root and 1st inversion
      • Leading note rises
      • Harmony changes almost every crotchet beat
      • The 3rd in Ic should fall by step to the 5th in V
      • In anacrusis opening, Bach would repeat chord I in the first beat of the next bar
    • Cadences
      • If the leading note occurs in the alto or tenor in a perfect cadence, Bach would often let it fall directly to the 5th of the tonic chord
      • Each phrase ends in a cadence, shown by a pause
      • Majority are perfect or imperfect
        • Interrupted, not necessary
        • In imperfect, Ib is used rather than I (I is used to approach)
        • In a perfect cadence, the tonic can be suspended, resolving to the leading note before falling to the 5th of a tonic chord
      • Non chord notes = continuous flow of quaver movement until each cadence
      • Final chord not usually decorated
      • Minor keys could end with tierce de Picardie
    • Doubling
      • In root chords, double 1st, 3 1st and a 3rd is acceptable, never omit the 3rd
      • In st inv. chords, ddouble the 1st 4th or 5th note of the scale, the root or any sensible note
      • Don't double tendency notes
      • Double 5th in Ic
    • Relationship between parts
      • Avoid having an octave between any 2 of the 3 upper parts
      • Tenor part = high
      • Avoid crossing parts
      • Overlaps are accepted when:
        • Tenor and bass move from tonic and dominant in chord V to unison of tonic in chord I (vice versa)
        • End of a phrase - if the new phrase doesn't start with a change of chord - need a new layout of notes
      • Parallel 5ths, 8ves and unisons should be avoided
    • Suspensions and dissonance
      • All sus should be prepared/resolved, if not they should be approached bt step
        • Resolution should occur in the same note as the dissonance
        • 7ths can be treated as suspensions
      • Bach regarded 4th above bass as dissonance
    • Spotting a Modulation
      • Phrases could end in perfect cadences in the new key
      • Most likely modulations are to the dominant or relative major/minor
      • If the leading note doesn't rise
      • If no chords could support cadence in the current key
  • Last Phrase = same key as beginning
    • 1.Identify the key throughout the exercise
      • Atleast 1 phrase will modulate/cadence to a new key
  • 2. Identify Cadences (inc. approach) and write in bass notes
    • Harmonizing the Complete Chorale
      • 3.Choose chords for 1st part of phrases - write in bass
        • Work from beginning - good join
        • 1st Chord = same as pause chord from cadence
        • I and V(7) and inversions are most useful
          • Inversions add variations
        • Strong progressions = roots fall in 5ths
        • Modulations should start from the beginning of the phrase
      • 4. Add inner parts and check (inc. consecutives)
      • 5. Add Decoration
        • Opening melody hints at what to use
        • Not in pause chords
        • Check they haven't added consecutives
  • The 3rd in Ic should fall by step to the 5th in V
  • In perfect, Ib, Ic or ii7b are used as approach chords
    • Majority are perfect or imperfect
      • Interrupted, not necessary
      • In imperfect, Ib is used rather than I (I is used to approach)
      • In a perfect cadence, the tonic can be suspended, resolving to the leading note before falling to the 5th of a tonic chord
    • Chromatic twist - sharpen 3rd of ii7b
  • As well as exposed 5ths and 8ves
    • Parallel 5ths, 8ves and unisons should be avoided

Comments

Matt Lowe

mm it's good, you just haven't included the adagio sostenuto or the poco ritardando and i think they're key components here, just like the sempre and the crescendo poco a poco and the molto cantabile. I mean, on the face of things the strigendo poco a poco does link nicely with the poco piu mosso and divisi but at the end of the day you've completely ignored the molto maestoso and how it's pentatonic resemblance embraces it's polytonal nature. I suppose i'm being harsh here but it is a very canonic piece, it's just a pity you've failed to recognise the fugal **** rhythmic displacement. good job with the green colour though. 

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