Bach Sarabande and Gigue.

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  • Webern, Quartet, Op.22, Atonal Serialism, 1930.
    • Tonality/ Harmony.
      • The piece has an absence of tonality (atonal) and consists of much dissonance and some verticalisation of chords.
        • Obviously no key signature with much manipulation of the tone row and much chromaticism.
          • Larger and longer dissonances to express one extreme emotion.
            • Use of later on enharmonic notation.
        • large angular leaps of 7th and 9ths. Highly condensed overall.
    • Rhythm.
      • Use of 3 rhythmic cells where complex rhythms disguise any sense of pulse; polyrhythmic.
        • It's an intensely concentrated work in which there's much rhythmic displacement.
      • The piece maily consists of quaver and semi quaver movements with arpegiaic spread piano chords - broken, disjunct rhythmic feel.
        • Almost every rhythm is derived from one of 3 rhythmic cells exposed from the first bar of the piece onward and are repeated throughout.
          • Use of mirror canon where all of the intervals on the bottom stave are reflected on the other stave by the same intervals moving in the opposite direction.
    • Texture.
      • The texture is very sparse but could be described as pointillist; notes as dots of colour.
      • Could be described as a contrapuntal texture with use of mirror canons (e.g. where the violin II imitates the saxophone's 1 -2 bar in inversion.)
      • Between bars 17 and 23, tutti - ish note stacks and make the texture build up, close to homophony (quasi homophony).
        • Contrapuntal not homophonic.
    • Melody.
      • Serial melody using 12 chromatic pitches (the tone row). Use of fragmented and angular melodic lines.
      • Tone row appears in inversion, retrograde, inflection and transposed after 1st being into'd in the sax part in bars 6 to 10 - cantus firmus.
        • Use of Klangfarbenmelodie (tone colour melody) where the melody is passed through each instrument so there's no dominant/principle voice and all diff. timbres are exposed and explored.
          • The melody is passed 1st through the clarinet, then the violin, then sax and then violin again.
      • Wide leaps in the melody line to avoid tonal implications.
    • Structure/ Form.
      • The Quartet is a short serialist, atonal piece in a modernized version of sonata form (the same plan as sonata form but it doesn't rely on keys or themes).
        • Could also be argued that the piece is in ternary form (ABA).
    • Metre and Instruments.
      • The metre of the piece begins in 3/8 and later alternates between 3/8, 5/8 and 4/8.
      • The piece is written for Violin, Clarinet, Tenor Saxophone and Piano.
      • The quartet consists of an unusual combination of instruments with contrasting timbres; nearly every note has a mark of expression.
        • Opening marked "sehr massig," very massive "mit dampfer," with violin mute on before it's removed in bar 24 where all sounds filter out.
      • Wide range of performance techniques used such as arco, pizz, mute on and off, extreme range of dynamics covered, rapid copntrasts of articulation and both up and down piano spread chords.


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