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  • Industrial Use of Microorganism
    • B7.4
      • Genetic Modification
        • Genes can be transferred between organisms
        • Genetic Modification is where a gene from one organism is transferred to another
        • The organisms with the transferred gene will then produce a protein using instructions in that gene
        • The protein can be made even  through the gene came from another organism beause all organisms use the same genetic code
        • Stages in genetic modification
          • 1. First the gene that is responsible for producing the desirable product is isolated
          • 2. The useful gene is replicated
          • 3. Each gene is joined to a vector
          • 4. Vectors containing teh useful gene are transferred into new cells
          • 5. Not all of the new cells will be modified for example the vector might not have been transferred properly
          • 6. So the last stage is to select it
        • Useful applications for humans
          • Making Medicines
            • 1. Insulin is a hormone that is used to treat type 1 diabetes
            • 2, Teh gene for human insulin production can be transferred into bacteria
            • 3. The bacteria are grown in a fermenter, and the human insulin is simply extracted as it is produced
          • Making crops herbicide resistant
            • 1, Some plants have natural resistance to things like herbicides
            • 2. Thanks to genetic modification we can cut out the gene responsible and stick it into any plant
            • 3, Herbicide resistant crops are useful to farmers becasue they can use a really effective weedkiller without damaging their produce
            • 4. They are more expensive
            • 5. They can encourage the use of weedkiller
      • Biological Technologies
        • Genetic Testing
          • 2. Make a gene probe: Use a strand of bases that is complimentry to teh faulty gene that you are looking for
          • 1. Take a DNA sample: DNA isolated form white blood cells often gotten by blood samples which contain white blood cells
          • 3. Use the gene probe: The gene probe is mixed with the DNA
        • Ways of improving packaging
          • Nanotechnology
          • 1. Food can be made to last longer
          • 2, Smart packaging changes the properties
        • Stem Cell Technonolgy
          • Unspecilised Cells
          • In the future they can be used to repair damaged nerve tissue
        • Biomedical Engineering
          • Uses engineering to improve human health
          • 1. The heart has a group of cells which determins how fast it beats. If they stop working they can become irregular.
            • A pace maker can be inputted yet this can cause problems
              • There could be electircal faults
              • Can run out of batteries
          • 2, Faulty heart valves can also be replaced
    • Features of Microorganism
      • They reproduce rapidly under the right conditions
      • They have plasmids
      • Their biochemistry is quite simple
      • They can make complex molecules that are to produce artificially
      • There are no ethical concerns
    • Products that can be made
      • Antibiotics: Some types of bacteria and fungi can be used to produce medicines on a large scale
      • Food from fungi: A type of single celled protein made by fungi
      • Enzymes for making food: Enzymes are needed to make some types of food
        • 1. Traditionally cheese is made using a mix of enzymes called rennet
        • Now chymosin can be produced by genetically modified microorganism
      • Enzymes for washing powder: Enzymes produced by bacteria can be used to make biological washing powders because they break down stains
      • Biofuels: Microorganism can be used to make fuel
        • 1. Yeast can be used to produce ethanol which is a waste product from anaerobic respiration
        • 2. Microorganism can be used to produce biogas


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