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  • Created by: amy_mair
  • Created on: 19-06-16 18:22
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  • B7.1
    • Blood and the circulatory system
      • Things that make up the blood
        • Red Blood Cells
          • The job of the red blood  cell is to transport oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body.
          • They do not have a nucleus this means that they are full of haemoglobin
          • Red blood cells have a biconcave shape this means that they have a large surface area
        • Plasma
          • This is the liquid that carries nutrience and waste
        • White Blood Cells
          • They help to fight infection by protecting your body against illnesses
        • Platelets
          • These are small fragments of cell that help the blood to clot
      • Double Circulatory Systems
        • Humans have double circulatory systems
        • The first one pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs to take in oxygen. The blood then returns to the heart
        • The second one pumps oxygenated blood around the body. As it gives up its oxygen and the blood without oxygen returns to the heart to be pumped out to the lungs again
    • The Heart
      • Left Side of the heart
        • Aorta
        • Left Aorta
        • Pulmonary Vein
        • Valves
        • Left Ventricle
      • Right Side of the heart
        • Vena Cava
        • Right Atrium
        • Valves
        • Right Ventricle
      • Labels of the Heart
        • 1. The right atrium of the heart recieves blood with no oxygen from the body through the vena cava
        • 2. The blood with no oxygen moves through the right ventricle, which pumps it to the lung by the pulmonary artery
        • 3. The left atrium recieves oxygenated blood from the lungs through the pulmonary vein
        • 4. The oxygenated blood then moves to the left ventricle whihc pumps it out round the body by the aorta
        • 5. The valves in the heart prevent the backflow of blood- veins also have valves for a reason
        • 6. There are 2 coronary arteries which supply the heart muscle cells with blood
        • 7. The left ventricle wall is thicker than the right as it has to pump blood all the way around the body ( the right only pumps to the lungs) The atria have thinner walls as they only pump blood to the ventricles
    • Capillaries
      • 1. Arteries branch into capillaries which are really tiny blood vessels
      • 2. They have permeable walls, so substances can diffuse in and out
      • 3. Networks of capillaries in tissue are called capillary beds
      • 4. As blood passes through capillary beds small molecules are forced out of the capillaries to form tissue fluid think diffusion
      • 5. Waste Chemicals diffuse out of the cells into the tissue fluid and into capillaries
      • 6. The tissue fluid allows cells to get the substances they need and get rid of waste
    • Joints and Bones
      • Joints
        • The bones at a joint are held together by ligaments. Ligaments have a high tensile strength but they are also slightly elastic- this means they help to stabilise joints but still allow movement
        • The ends of the bones are covered with a smooth layer of cartlige to reduce friction between the bones. Cartlige can be slightly compresed so it acts as a shock absorber
        • Membrames at some joints release synovial fluid to lubricate the joints, allowing tehm to move more easily by reducing friction
      • Muscles
        • 1. Bones are attached to muscles by tendons
        • 2. Muscles move bones at a joint by contracting or becoming shorter
        • 3. Tendons can not stretch much so when a muscle contracts a tendon pulls on the bone which transmits the force from the muscle to the bone
        • 4. Muscles can only pull on bones to move a joint they are unable to push. This is why muscles usually come in pairs which are called antagnostic pairs
        • 5. When one muscle in the pair contracts, the joint moves in one direction. When the other muscle contracts, it moves in the opposite direction


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