gcse science biology unit B6

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  • Created by: charlie
  • Created on: 26-05-13 19:53
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  • B6
    • bacteria
      • 4 shapes
        • rods
        • curved rods
        • spheres
        • spirals
      • nutrients from surroundings
        • energy
      • asexual reproduction
        • binary fission(split in two)
          • clones
        • inc. by warmth and nutrients
      • culturing
        • aseptic technique
      • making yoghurt
        • pasteurise milk
          • lactobacillus b. added
            • incubated in fermenter
              • b. break down lactose sugar into lactic acid
                • clots and solidifies
                  • fruits added
      • some produce own nutrients
    • viruses
      • only reproduce inside living cells
      • infect plant, animal and bacteria cells
      • very particular
      • attaches to host and inserts genetic material
        • uses host to make new v.
          • host splits releasing loads
    • diseases transmitted
      • food
        • food poisoning
      • water
        • cholera
      • air borne droplets
        • influenza
      • contact
        • athletes foot
    • infectious disease
      • microo. enters body (mouth..)
        • reproduces rapidly
          • produces damaging toxins to cells
            • microo. and immune system causes symptoms
              • time between exposure and symptoms- incubation period
      • antiseptics
        • outside- clean wound and prevent
      • antibiotics
        • inside- pill to people already infected
      • resistant bacteria (MRSA)
        • random mutations in DNA change characteristics
          • bacteria survive and gene passed on
            • gene more common in pop.
        • finish course and prescribe when necessary
      • Louis pasteur
        • germ theory (1961)
          • spontaneous g.  was wrong
          • germs in the air
            • one curved end glass
            • one straight end glass
      • joseph lister
        • knew about germ theory used carbolic acid
          • prevented sepsis
      • flemming
        • penicillin
          • left out agar plate and around mould no bacteria grew
    • yeast
      • anaerobic during fermentation
        • C6H12O6=2C2H5OH+2CO2
        • aerobic before so more energy released
      • growth rate varies depending on condition
        • optimum temp.
        • lots of food
        • toxic waste slows it down (ethanol)
        • optimum pH
        • measured on how much glucose broken down
      • sugary wastewater cleaned up
        • yeast treats - uses up sugar in resp.
    • brewing beer and wine
      • sugar out of barley/grapes
        • b. grains germinate and dry then water added
          • yeast added into warm incubator
            • fermentation to alcohol until yeast die
              • chemicals added for clearness
                • beer pasteurised-  kill leftover yeast
                • wine isnt- any leftover improve taste
      • distillation improves alcohol content
        • after fermentation solution
          • heated 78 d.c
            • separates alcohol vapour and water
              • pure alcohol condensed in collecting vessel
    • bio fuels
      • biomass
        • plant matter stores energy
          • transferred to useful forms
            • fast growing trees burnt
            • biomass fermented creating biogas
      • biogas
        • 70% CH4, 30% CO2
        • >50% methane burns easily
        • 10% methane explosive
        • made in digester=fermenter
          • bacteria break down without O2 (ferment)
      • sustainable/carbon neutral
      • clean- doesnt produce particulates
      • not as much energy
      • habitats loss+extinction
      • ethanol as biofuel
        • cleaner than other petrols
        • made by fermentation
        • +petrol=gasohol
          • less crude oil
          • uses sugar to ferment
        • carbon neutral
    • soils
      • different particulates
        • sandy
          • large mineral particles
          • large pores
            • high air content+permeable
        • clay
          • tiny particles
          • small pores
            • low air content+non permeable
          • retains water
        • loam
          • mixture sand+clay
            • properties depend on % mixture
        • all contain humus
          • dead organic matter
            • supports the soil life
      • experiments
        • humus
          • bunsen burner (550d.c) weigh before+after
        • water
          • wet soil-oven(105d.c) weigh b+a
        • air
          • loose soil in tin+ add water with pipette measure till fill to top
      • full of living things
        • herbivores(slug)
          • carnivores(spider)
            • detritivores (millipede)
        • protozoa, fungi, bacteria
        • conditions
          • water+O2
            • H20- carry out reactions
            • O2- respiration
          • humus
            • decomposed, dead organic matter
              • inc. mineral+air(O2) content
        • earthworms
          • Darwin
            • good for soil structure+fertility
              • bury leaves+other organic m. for decomposers
              • burrows- aeration
                • O2
                • waterlogg- drainage
              • mix up layers- spread nutrients
              • poo is less acidic than soil eat- neutralise
  • some produce own nutrients

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