B6

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  • B6
    • The nervous system
      • The nervous system detects and reacts to Stimuli
      • Made up of different parts
        • Central nervous system (Brain and spinal cord)
          • Connected to the body by sensory neurones and motor neurones
        • Sensory neurones- carry impulses from receptors to CNS
        • Motor neurones- carry impulses from the CNS to effectors
        • Effectors- muscles and glands respond to nervous impulses
      • CNS coordinates the response- like a processing centre
      • Stimulus
        • Receptor
          • Sensory neurone
            • CNS
              • Motor neurone
                • Effector
                  • Response
    • Neurones and synapses
      • Information is transmitted around the body by neurones
      • Electrical impulses pass along the axon of nerve cells
      • The gap between two neurones is called a synapse
        • information is transmitted from nerve to nerve through transmitter chemicals across synapses
      • Ecstasy blocks sites where serotonin is reabsorbed
      • Ecstasy is mood enhancing because of increase in serotonin
    • Reflexes
      • Involuntary responses
        • Quick, do not require thought
      • The route taken by information in a reflex (from receptor to effector) is called a reflex arc
      • The reflex arc goes through the CNS
      • Simple reflexes improve the chance of survival
        • Respond to a stimuli in away that helps them to survive
    • Modifying and learning reflexes
      • Reflex responses can be modified by the Brain
      • Can modify a natural reflex responce
      • Picking up a hot plate, putting down instead of dropping
      • Reflex responses can be learned
        • Pavlov's dogs
      • Conditioned reflexes can increase chances of survival
    • Brain development and learning
      • The brain is interconnected neurones
      • The brain becomes more developed with every new experiece
      • Produces connections
      • When experiences are repeated the pathways become stronger
    • Learning skills and behaviour
      • Being able to learn means you can adapt to new situations
        • Complex animals are incredibly adaptable
        • Simpler animals have less flexible nervous systems
      • Some skills only develop at certain ages
        • Communication
      • Cerebral cortex
        • Outer part of the brain
        • Folds for extra surface area
        • Plays a role in intelligence, memory, language and consciousness
    • Studying the brain
      • Studying patients with brain damage
        • Can judge which part of the brain controls what by what effect it has and which part is damaged
      • Electrically stimulating the brain
        • Electrode in a part of brain, which ever part reacts shows different zones
      • MRI scans
        • Produces detailed pictures of the brain, stimulate parts of the brain then can see which are active
      • Memory is the storage and retrieval of information
        • Short term and long term memory
        • Information needs to be repeated to be transferred to long term memory
        • Memories that don't go from short to long are forgotten

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