B6 Revision Part A

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  • B6 Revision
    • Understanding Microbes
      • Parts of a bacterial cell
        • Flagellum - Aids Movement
        • Bacterial DNA - Cell activity and replication
        • Cell Wall - keeps shape and prevents from bursting.
        • Capsule - Protects from phagocytes
      • Different Shapes
        • Spherical - MRSA
        • Rod - Anthrax
        • Curved Rod - Cholera
        • Corkscrew - Syphilis
      • Yeast
        • Fungi
        • Glucose + oxygen -> carbon dioxide + Water
        • Needs good temp and pH and food availability and removal of waste products - Enzymes
      • Virus
        • Inject themselves into cells
        • Alter DNA to replicate virus DNA
        • Release new Viruses from cell
    • Harmful Microorganisms
      • Transmission of Disease
        • Water Borne
        • Air Borne
        • Food Contamination
        • Through Contact
      • How infectious diseases make you ill
        • Entry - disease enters body
        • Incubation - Rapid Growth
        • Release - toxins are released
        • Symptons - You feel ill
      • Natural Disasters
        • Refugee camps mean that people are close together
        • Disruption to health services mean people can't get medicine
        • Sewer Systems Broken
        • Damage to electrics (food preparation)
      • Pioneers
        • Louis Pasteur - The Germ Theory
        • Joseph Lister - Antispectics (designed to kill bacteria - preventative)
        • Alexander Fleming - Penicillin/antibiotic (designed to cure illness)
      • Antibiotic resistance
        • Stronger bacteria are naturally selected and survive while weaker die (gene mutation)
        • Stronger bacteria multiply
        • whole batch of bacteria are strong
    • Useful Microorganisms
      • Making Alcohol
        • Sugar rich solution used with warm water, not boiling as enzymes in yeast would denature.
        • Addd glucose and leave to ferment on heat mat due to denaturing.
          • Bubble trap used to stop oxygen getting in as it is anaerobic.
        • Once fermented, let sediment go to bottom and filter off
        • pasteurise (heat to high temp) and bottle.
      • Making Yoghurt
        • Sterilise everything and pasteurise milk
          • Add lacto bacillus and incubate the culture.
            • Sample
              • Add flavour and packaging

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