B6 BRAIN AND MIND

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  • B6 BRAIN AND MIND
    • Communication systems
      • Nervous System
        • sends messages between body cells using neurons; includes the central nervous system and peripgeral nervous system
          • Central nervous system (CNS)
            • brain and spinal chord
          • Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
            • network of neurons
        • quick short response - the nerve impulse is electrical
      • Hormonal system
        • produces chemical message in the form of hormones.
        • slower then NS but rsponse lasts longer
        • Nervous System
          • sends messages between body cells using neurons; includes the central nervous system and peripgeral nervous system
            • Central nervous system (CNS)
              • brain and spinal chord
            • Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
              • network of neurons
          • quick short response - the nerve impulse is electrical
        • hormones are chemicals produced by glands. they are transported in the blood.
    • Neurons
      • cells that are specialised for carrying nerve impulses
      • in the nervous system, neurons link receptor cells to effector cells
        • receptor
          • part of a neuron that detects stimuli and converts them into nerve impulses
            • stimulus
              • a change in the environment that causes a response by stimulating receptor nerve cells
        • effector
          • part of the body that responds to a stimulus
      • the PNS is made up of sensory and motor neurons
        • transmit electrical impulses when stimulated
          • cells that are specialised for carrying nerve impulses
        • a neuron has an axon - a long extension of the cytoplasm surrounded by a cell membrane
          • axons are surrounded by a fatty sheath - this insulates the neurons from nearby cells, so electrical signals can pass along it quickly
        • SYNAPSES
          • the small gap between two neuorns
            • nerve impulses reaches the end of nerve and is changed to a chemical signal - this crosses the synapse and sets up an electrical impulse in the next neuron
              • when nerve impulse reaches end of first neuron, a chemical transmitter substance is released.
                • transmitter substance = chemical that crosses a synapse
                  • seretonin
                • the transmitter difuses acriss the synapse and binds with receptor molecules in the membrane of next neuron.
                  • nerve impulse is then propagated to second neuron
                  • receptor molecule = allow transmitter to bind to them, found on membrane
          • DRUGS
            • prozac  (anti depressant) increases seretonin levels
            • ecstasy works on seretonin
              • it blocks the reuptake, increasing the concentration
                • more seretonin
            • beta blockers block the receptor sites
      • reflexes
        • automatic response - action made without thinking
          • goes through a reflex arc to happen
            • stimulus - receptor - sensory neuron - relay neuron - motor neuron - effector (muscle)
    • connected
    • connected

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