B5 part 1

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  • Created by: charlie
  • Created on: 21-05-13 12:19
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  • B5
    • bones and cartilage
      • vertebrates
        • internal skeleton
          • grow with body
          • attach muscles to framework
          • flexible
      • long bones
        • start as cartilage
          • ossification
            • deposits calcium and phosphorus
        • hollow
        • bone marrow makes red BC
      • damage
        • osteoporosis
    • joints and muscles
      • synovial joints
        • hinge
        • ball and socket
      • cartilage
        • stops rubbing+shock absorber
      • s membrane
        • s fluid for lubrication
      • antagonistic pairs
      • ligaments and tendons
    • circulatory system
      • single cell organisms
        • diffusion
      • multicellular
        • blood c.system
          • single c. system
            • low BP
            • two heart chambers
          • double c.system
            • high BP
            • materials quicker transportation
            • four heart chambers
      • unborn babies
        • hole in heart
          • blood bypass lungs
          • O2 from mother placenta
    • cardiac cycle
      • how heart contracts (one  cycle)
      • Galen (Greece)
        • cut open animals
          • knew about chambers
            • arterial blood made by heart
              • blood in veins made by liver
      • william Harvey (1578-1657)
        • valves stopped backflow
          • heart=pump
            • pulse=heart  pump blood into arteries
              • same blood circulated
    • heart rate
      • affected by hormones (adrenaline)
      • inc. by exercise
      • heart pacemaker
        • SAN stimulate AVN to contract
      • Electrocardiograms
        • electrical activity of  heart
        • heart attacks
        • irregular heartbeats
      • echo-cardiogram
        • ultrasounds
          • enlarged heart
          • decrease pumping ability
          • valves
    • heart disease
      • hole in heart
        • gap in wall between A or V
          • O2 and non O2  blood mix
        • surgery
      • valve damage
        • high BP doesnt open
        • low BP allows backflow
        • artificial valve
      • CHD
        • bad cholesterol blocks coronary arteries
        • coronary bypass op
      • artificial replacements
        • not recognised as foreign
        • not last long
    • blood clotting and transfusions
      • platelets- chemical reaction- exposed to damaged blood vessels
      • fibrin fibre mesh
        • clots the area
      • too little
        • bleed to death
          • haemophilia
            • missing clotting factor injected
      • too much
        • stoke or DVT
          • take drugs
    • transplants and organ donation
      • criteria
        • young and healthy
        • similar body weight
        • tissue match +died recently
        • over 18+permission
      • rejection
        • foreign  and I.S attack
        • I.S suppressive drugs
      • ethical issues
        • life/death up to God
        • pressuered
      • join opt  in system
      • mechanical replacement
        • heart-lung machines
          • blood and O2 pump during op
        • kidney dialysis
          • filter blood
        • mechanical ventilators
          • push air in and out of lungs
        • power supply, large and non harmful materials
    • respiratory system
      • inspiration and expiration
        • throax vol. inc and dec
      • lung capacity
        • measured by spirometer
      • gaseous exchange
        • alveoli adapted
          • large SA
          • moist
          • permeable surface
          • good BC supply
        • alveoli sacks
        • amphibians exchange through skin
        • fish through gills
          • water O2 supply keeps gills separated

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