B5-Communicable disease

HideShow resource information
View mindmap
  • B5-Communicable disease
    • Viral diseases
      • HIV (Humans)
        • Initially the person has flu-like symptoms and can develop into AIDS
        • HIV is spread by direct sexual contact or the exchange of bodily fluids such as blood by sharing needles
        • HIV can be controlled with antiretroviral drugs
        • Can be an STD
      • Measles (Humans)
        • Main symptoms are a fever and a red skin rash
        • Spread by inhalation of droplets from coughs and sneezes and is very infectious
      • Tobacco mosaic virus (Plants)
        • Mainly affects tomato and tobacco plants
        • Causes a distinctive mosaic pattern of discolouration on the plants
        • Affects the growth of the plant because the plant cannot carry photosynthesis as well
    • Health and disease
      • Other factors can also affect health: Diet, stress and life situations
      • Communicable dieases are diseases caused by pathogens that can be passed on from one person to another
        • Non-communicable diseases are diseases that cannot be transmitted from one person to another
      • Health is a state of physical and mental wellbeing
    • Pathogens
      • Spread: By air, direct contact, by water
        • Vectors are organisms that spread the protist disease but don't get it themselves
      • 4 types: Protist (Malaria), Fungi (Athlete's foot), Virus (HIV), Prokaryote (bacteria) (Leprosy)
      • Pathogens are microorganisms that cause disease
    • Bacteria and viruses
      • Bacteria rapidly divide by splitting into two (binary fission). They produce toxins that affect your body making you feel ill
        • Can be treated with antibiotics
      • Viruses take over the cells of your body and live and reproduce in the cells, damaging and destroying them
    • Bacterial diseases
      • Gonorrhea
        • Is an STD
        • Spread by unprotected sex
        • Symptoms include: Thick yellow/green discharge from penis or vagina and pain during urination
      • Salmonella (Food poisoning)
        • Symptoms are fever, abdominal cramps, vomiting, diarrhoea created by the bacteria and toxins they secrete
        • In UK poultry are vaccinated against salmonella
    • Fungal diseases
      • Rose black spot is a fungal disease of rose leaves that causes black or purple spots to develop and the leaves turn yellow and drop off early
        • Less photosynthesis can happen which means plant doesn't grow as well
          • Carried in the wind or by water
        • Gardeners treat the disease using chemical fungicides, ********* and burning affected leaves and stems so it cannot spread
    • Diseases cause by protists
      • Malaria is a disease caused by protists that are parasites
        • Causes repeating episodes of fever
          • Prevented with: mosquito nets, insecticides, antimalarial drugs
      • Mosquitoes are vectors
    • Human defence systems
      • First line of defence
        • Made up of the skin, nose, trachea and bronchi, and stomach acid
          • If you cut or damage your skin your skin restores it and prevents you from bleeding, produces antimicrobial secretions to destroy pathogenic bacteria
            • Healthy skin is covered with microorganisms that help keep you healthy and act as an extra barrier
          • The stomach produces hydrochloric acid which destroys microorganisms and mucus swallowed as well as majority of other pathogens
          • The trachea and bronchi also secrete mucus and the lining of the tubes are covered in cilia which sweep mucus to the throat and is swallowed
          • Nose is full of hairs and produces mucus which traps particles that may contain pathogens
      • Second line of defence
        • White blood cells (phagocytes)
          • WIP PAPA
            • White blood cells, ingest, pathogens, produce antibodies, produce, antitoxins
          • 1. White blood cells can ingest pathogens and destroy them; phagocytosis
            • 2. Each pathogen has a unique set of proteins on its surface called antigens. White blood cells produce antibodies which is specific to that antigen
              • Once your white blood cells have produced antibodies against a specific pathogen, they can be made quickly if that pathogen gets back into the body
              • 3. White blood cells can produce antitoxins which counteract the toxins released by pathogens
    • Plants
      • Mineral ions
        • Plants need mineral ions from the soil. If there aren't enough, plants suffer from deficiency symptoms
          • 1. Nitrates are needed to make proteins and therefore growth. A lack of nitrates causes a stunted growth
            • 2. Magnesium ions are needed to make chlorophyll, without it photosynthesis cannot happen and the plant suffers from chlorosis and has yellow leaves
      • Plants defences
        • Physical: 1. Waxy cuticles; stops pathogens entering. 2 Cell walls which forms physical barrier after waxy cuticle. 3. layers of dead cell which act as barrier
        • Chemical: 1. Some can produce antibacterial chemicals which kill bacteria e.g. mint plant=witch hazel. 2. Others produce poisons which deter herbivores e.g tobacco plants
        • Mechanical barriers: 1. Some plants have thorns and hairs. 2. Some have leaves that curl which knock off insects. 3. Some mimic other organisms

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all Cells, tissues and organs resources »