gcse science biology unit B4

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  • Created by: charlie
  • Created on: 16-05-13 16:56
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  • B4
    • biodiversity
      • variation between individuals of same species
      • no. diff. species in area
      • no. of diff. habitats in area
      • natural eco. higher B
        • artificial- 1 type
        • natural- variety
    • transects
      • investigate distribution
      • tape measure and quadrat
        • measure % cover
          • plot on kite diagram
    • photosynthesis
      • 6CO2+6H2O=C6H12O6+6O2
        • light energy (CHLOROPHYLL)
        • glucose converted into
          • glucose for respiration
          • lipids stored in seeds
          • +nitrates=amino acids
          • cellulose for cell walls
          • insoluble starch for storage
      • history
        • greek scientists  mass from min. in soil
          • van helmont mass gained from water
            • Priestley plant relit candle and kept animal alive longer - O2
      • O2 comes from water
        • O-18 in water
          • O-16 in CO2
            • O-18 released
      • 3 limiting factors
        • not enough light
        • too little CO2
        • temp. has to be just right (45)
      • pigments abosorb diff. wavelengths of light
        • chlorophyll a
        • chlorophyll b
        • carotene
        • xanthophyll
      • day time
        • photo+resp- release o2 take co2
      • night time
        • resp. release co2 take o2
    • estimating pop. size
      • quadrat
      • capture re-capture
        • no. 1st sample x no. 2nd sample/ no. 2nd sample marked
          • assumptions
            • no changes in pop. size
            • sampling methods identical
            • marking hasnt affect survival
    • diffusion
      • net movement particles high concen. to low concen.
        • perfume
      • rate
        • distance
        • concen. diff.
        • SA-  bigger the faster
    • ecosystem
      • organisms and abiotic factors in area
      • self supporting
      • sun- energy source
      • zonation
        • change in dist. of species over habitat
        • abiotic factors
          • light
          • salinity
          • temp.
    • osmosis
      • water molecules partially perm mem. high concen to low concen
      • trying to dilute
        • moves into stronger solution
      • type of diffusion
      • plant cells
        • inc. water- turgid
        • dec. water- flaccid
      • animal cells
        • inc. water- lysis
        • dec. water- crenation
    • phloem and xylem
      • x
        • dead
        • water+min. up
          • transpiration system
        • thick cellulose- support
      • p
        • food up and down
        • alive
        • translocation
    • plants need
      • nitrates
        • amino acids+proteins
      • phosphates
        • resp.+growth (DNA+cell mem.)
      • potassium
        • photo.+resp.
      • magnesium
        • makes chlorophyll
      • root hairs
        • take in min. by active transport
    • decay
      • microorganisms(decomposers)
        • depend on
          • temp.
          • water amount
          • O2 amount
      • detritivores
        • breaks to smaller bits
        • maggots
      • saprophytes
        • extracellular digestion
        • fungi
      • food peservation
        • canning,cooling,freezing,drying,add salt sugar vinegar
    • leaves adapted for diffusion
      • broad
      • thin
      • stomata
        • open
          • turgid guard cells
        • close
          • flaccid guard cells
      • guard cells
      • air spaces
    • transpiration
      • benefits
        • keep plant cool
        • constant h2o for photo.
        • turgid pressure
        • mineral supply
      • evap.+tran. inside leaves
      • increased by
        • light intensity
        • temp
        • air movement
        • dec. humidity
    • farming
      • intensive farming
        • hydrophonics
          • nutrient solution
        • pesticides
          • pollute rivers
      • organic farming
        • biological control
        • weeding
        • crop  rotation

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