B4

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  • B4
    • Enzymes
      • Proteins that speed up chemical reactions.
      • Substrates are molectules that have been altered in a reaction.
      • The Lock and Key model:
      • An increase in temperature increases the rate at first but if it gets too hot the bonds break so the substrate will no longer fit the active site
    • Cell Structure and Function
      • Cell Membrane - In & Out
      • Cytoplasm - Enzymes are made, anaerobic respiration
      • Mitochondria - Aerobic Respiration
      • Nucleus - DNA, instructions for making Enzymes
      • Cell Wall - Keeps cell rigid.
      • Chloroplasts - Contain chlorophyll for photosynthesis
      • Vacuole - Cell sap for salt and sugar
    • Respiration
      • Aerobic - series of chemical reactions which releases energy by breaking down large food molecules
        • O2 H12 O6 + 6O2 --> 6H2O + 6CO2
      • Energy released in respiration is used for: movement, active transport, synthesis of large molecules
      • Anaerobic - 'Without Oxygen'
        • Animal Cells - When excersise excessively the muscle can't take in oxygen.
        • Plant Cells - When the soil's waterlogged, there is no oxygen intake because of the water.
        • Bacteria Cell - puncture in skin there's no oxygen underneath so to survive it has to anaerobically respire.
        • Glucose --> lactic acid (+light)
    • Photosynthesis
      • Series of chemical reactions which take in energy from the sun to produce food
      • Oxygen = waste product
      • 6CO2 + 6H2O --> C6H12O6 + 6O2
      • Photosynthesis is at the start of the food chain - the energy gets passed down by eaters
      • Glucose is mixed with nitrates in the soil to produce amino acids to form proteins
      • The Rate of Photosynthesis has 3 limiting factors - Light (Night), CO2 (If neither) and Temperature (Winter)
      • Investigating: Transect (Tape Measure), Light Meter (Light Level), Quadrat (Percentage cover), Identification Key (Questions)

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