B3B: Humans and their environment

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  • B3B: Humans and their environment
    • As standard of living increses, so does...
      • Waste- pollution
        • Water--> Sewage, fertiliser, toxic Chemicals
        • Air--> Smoke, gases contributing to acid rain (SO2)
        • Land--> Toxic chemicals eg. pesticide & herbicide washed from land into waterways.
      • Land reduction
        • Building
        • Quarrying
        • Farming
        • Dumping
      • Deforestation
        • Has occured for timber & agriculture
          • Crops can be grown from which biofuels, based on ethanol, can be produced.
          • Increase in cattle & rice fields to producemore food.
        • Problems
          • Reduced biodiversity- destroys habitats
          • Increase in release of CO2 into atmosphere- burnt/ left to decay- locked up carbon
          • Reduced rate of removal of CO2 from atmosphere- less absorbed by trees
          • Rice fields & cows produce methane as a waste product- green house gas- greenhouse effect- harmful rays.
    • Causes of Increase in Greenhouse Gases in Atmosphere
      • Methane
        • Cows
        • Rice Paddy Fields
      • Co2
        • Deforestation
          • Respiration of microorganisms decaying timber
          • Less removal of CO2 from atmosphere by trees.
        • Burning fossil fuels
          • Oxygen + Carbon --> Carbon Dioxide
        • Removing CO2 from the atmosphere:
          • Sequestered (hidden/locked away) in oceans, lakes  ponds.
    • Global Warming
      • Average increase in temperature of the the Earth
      • Effects:
        • Climate Change
        • Rise in Sea Level- Ice Caps Melting
        • Reduce biodiversity- extinction
        • Changed in migration patterns
        • Changes in distribution of species
    • Biofuels
      • Ethanol
        • Fermantation= anaerobic respiration by microbes
          • Graph
            • Ethanol production rises- CO2 levels fall.
        • Cheap- Starch= source of carbs for respiration.
        • No bacteria wanted
          • Competition for microbes; sterilised equipment.
        • Carbon Neutral?
          • Yes
            • Ethanol burnt releasing same amount of CO2 as Photosynthesis removes from atmosphere.
          • No
            • Machines burning fossil fuels- transport, packing.
            • Deforestation- releasing 'locked-up' carbon due to burning/respiration of decay microbes.
            • Fertiliser= releases CO2 when made.
        • Removes land otherwise used for food production.
          • Intensive farming- fertilisers, machines, airmiles--> transport; produce CO2
            • No
              • Machines burning fossil fuels- transport, packing.
              • Deforestation- releasing 'locked-up' carbon due to burning/respiration of decay microbes.
              • Fertiliser= releases CO2 when made.
        • Reduces air polution & is renewable
      • Biogas
        • Anaerobic fermentation of plant products/waste material containing carbs.
          • Small Scale
            • Biogas generators used to supply energy needs of individual families/farms.
          • Many different microbes involved in breakdown of materials.
            • Keep cold by keeping undergound.
        • Generators
          • Advantages
            • Carbon Neutral- greener than fossil fuels. CO2 released was taken in by plants.
            • Doesn't produce significant amounts of NO2/SO2 (cause acid rain).
            • Methane= greenhouse gas responsible for global warming. Given off by untreated waste, so burning means not released into atmosphere.
            • Raw material= cheap & available.
            • Digested material (slurry)= better fertiliser than undiggested- grow more crops.
            • Saves women in developing countries from collecting wood for fuel- education/work.
            • Uses waste carbs- effective waste disposal.
            • Renewable
            • Useful in developing countries off grid.
            • Can be small/large scale.
          • Disadvantages
            • Enzymes denature.
              • Cool in hot.
              • Insulate/heat in cold.
            • Control pressure- could explode.
            • Set up costs.
            • Stock & monitor generator daily.
            • Using land to house generator & pipes.
    • Food Production
      • Energy efficiency decreses up food chaindue to respiration.
        • Sun
          • Wheat
            • Cow
              • Human
        • Biomass= living material.
      • Fusarium- mould/fungus
        • Used to make mycoprotein (Quorn)- protein rich food for vegetarians.
        • Grown on starch in aerobic conditions.
        • Biomass harvested & purified.
        • Produces protein biomass from its food faster than animals.
        • Cooling system
          • Anaerobic respiration- heat= waste product, uses enzymes.
          • Protein synthesis- uses enzymes.
            • Amino Acids.
            • So they're not denatured.
              • Anaerobic respiration- heat= waste product, uses enzymes.
      • Intensive farming
        • E.g. Pigs, Chickens.
        • Kept close together indoors in small pens- warm & can't move about- limits energy lost by respiration.
        • Transfer of energy form feed to animal more efficient- animals grow faster on less food.
        • Cheaper for farmer & consumer when animals are sold.
      • Problems with Production & Distribution
        • Compromises & conflict:
          • Forcing to live in unnatural & uncomfortable conditions= cruel.Growing demand for organic meat- animals won't have to be intensively farmed.
          • Crowded conditions on factory farms create favourable environment for spread of disease like avian flu & foot-and-mouth disease.
          • Prevent disease- given antibiotics. When eaten, anitbiotics can enter humans. Allows microbes that infect humans to develop immunity to those antibiotics- so the antibiotics become less effective as human medicines.
          • Animals need to be kept warm to reduce energy they lose as heat. Often means using power from fossil fuels- which we wouldn't be using power from fossil fuels- which we wouldn't be using if the animals were grazing in their natural environment.
          • Our fish stocks are getting low, yet a lot of fish goes on feeding animals that are intensively farmed- these animals wouldn't usually eat this source of food.

Comments

Swallowtail

This is  a very comprehensive mind map that covers the effects of humans in the environment. It would be useful to add some funny little images to make the words more memorable.

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