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  • B3a
    • breathing system
      • artificial ventilator - machine which moves air in and out of the lungs
        • air pumped into lungs, expanding ribcage. when pumping stops ribcage relaxes and pushes air back out of the lungs
      • breathe in - intercostal muscles and diaphragm contract - diaphragm flattens - volume of thorax increases - reduced air pressure - air drawn into lungs and reverse
    • water flow through plants
      • dissolved sugars are made in leaves and transported to growing regions and storage organs of plants
    • the blood
      • white blood cells - antibodies, engulfing, producing antitoxins
    • artificial heart, won't be rejected
      • risk of operation going wrong, heart doesn't work as well
    • temp of skin monitored by temp receptors in skin
    • ion level not right - too much/little water would be drawn into cells which would damage the cells
    • kidney failure
      • dialysis done regularly to keep everything at the right levels
    • controlling blood glucose
      • diabetics control intake of simple carbs (reduce), insulin injection, regular exercise
      • insulin previously extracted from pigs, now gm bacteria used
        • now doesn't cause adverse reactions
      • pancreas transplants can be used - risk of rejection, immuno-suppressant drugs
      • investigating artificial pancreases and using stem cells


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