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  • B3
    • Classification
      • Use similarities and differences to put them into groups
      • Names are in Latin
      • Species
        • Can breed together
        • Their offspring can breed together (fertile)
      • Adaptations
        • Having features that help them survive in their environment
    • The sun
      • Plants are producers
        • Capture energy from sunlight for photosynthesis
        • Consumers eat the plants and receive the glucose from the plants
          • Use the energy for life processes
      • On average 10% of the energy is transferred at each stage
        • The rest is:
          • Used for life proccesses
          • Escapes into the environment as heat
          • Is excreted as waste and passed to decomposers
          • Cannot be eaten and passes to decomposers
      • Decomposers and detrivores
        • Energy flows into them as they feed on dead organisms and waste material
        • Bacteria and fungi are decomposers
        • Detrivores are small animals like woodlice
    • Systems in balance
      • Carbon and nitrogen are always recycled in a cycle
      • Carbon dioxide is taken out of the atmosphere by photosynthesis
        • The glucose produced is broken down in respiration
          • Which releases it back to the atmosphere
        • when a plant or animal dies it is broken down by decomposers
        • Carbon dioxide is also added to the atmosphere through combustion
      • Nitrogen
        • Nitrates are made using nitrogen from the air (Nitrogen fixation)
          • Nitrogen fixing bacteria causes nitrogen to turn into nitrates
          • Decomposing bacteria break down the proteins in dead organisms which releases nitrates back into the soil
          • Denitrifying bacteria  break down nitrates in the soil and turn them into nitrogen (denitrification)
        • Nitrogen is part of proteins in all organisms
        • Can be monitored by lichens (organisms made up of fungus)
          • certain lichens grow best with high levels of nitrogen compounds others don't
    • Phytoplankton
      • Tiny  floating plants in the water
      • They're numbers and patterns vary because of heat, nutrients and ocean mixing
    • Evolution
      • Started with small living things
        • Develop into a variety of species
      • Fossils provide evidence for evolution
        • Also compare DNA
      • Selective breeding
        • Bred species with desired qualities
      • Natural selection
        • Change in environment causes the species to change (only few will survive)
      • Lamarck- French scientist (explained giraffe evolution)
        • The giraffe stretches its neck to reach food
          • The neck becomes longer
            • The giraffe passes its new longer neck onto its offspring
        • Darwin's explanation was better
          • It accounts for all the observations
          • It explains a link between things that people hadn't thought of before
    • Darwin
      • Worked out  how evolution worked
      • Explained how natural selection caused evolution
      • Went on the HMS beagle to research
        • Collected specimens and made observations
          • Galapapagos islands (wrote about finches)
            • Specialized beaks
      • Realised that  animals from the same species are all different
      • Competition
        • There are always too many of any species to survive
        • Different  organisms that require the same resource, must compete for the resource
      • Wrote a book called the origin of species published November 1859
        • Other scientists backed up his idea
      • He could not explain why all the living things in one species were not all the same
        • Also couldn't explain how living things passed features on from one generation to the next
    • Mutations
      • Cause variation
        • When DNA is being copied a mistake could be  made
        • Produce differences in species
      • Mutations that do have an effect are usually harmful
    • Biodiversity
      • The great variety of living things, both within a species and between different species
      • Extinction
        • Will be less variety on the earth
        • When all the members of a species have died out
        • People rely on other species for things
        • Plants or animals can be used for medicines
        • Ecosystems with high biodiversity tend to cope better with natural disasters
    • Sustainability
      • Meeting the needs of people today without damaging earth for people of the future
        • Avoid monoculture
      • use biodegradable products as they are more sustainable
        • Other porducts take energy to break down




Is this everything there is in B3? Or is there anything else i need to revise



This is absolutely brilliant!! Love it

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