B3a

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  • Created by: dreamer01
  • Created on: 27-07-13 15:29
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  • B3
    • Gas Exchange
      • large surface area
      • thin surface
      • good blood supply
      • moist lining allowing gases to diffuse
      • good ventilation
    • Active transport
      • movement of particles
        • the concentration gradient,
          • extra energy
            • respiration
    • Exchange in the gut
      • Lacteal
        • absorbs fats and carries them away from the villus
        • maintains concentration gradient for fat absoroption
      • Dense capillary network
        • inside each villus are many capilaries
          • take away absorbed molecules
      • Epithelial membrane
        • very thin - 1 cell thick
          • provides short diffusion path
            • digested food molecules
    • Artificial breathing aids
      • an iron lung
        • maintains breathing
          • artificial means.
    • Ventilation in the lungs
      • in the throax
        • lungs are protected by the ribcage
          • intercostal muscles contract to move your ribs up and down
            • increasing the volume of the thorax
    • Exchange in plants
      • Plants mainly lose water vapour through the leaves
        • most of the loss of water vapour takes place through the stomata
    • Transpiration
      • the process in which water movies up the xylem
        • from the roots to evaporating out of the stomata
    • Double circulatory system
      • Arteries
        • small so more pressure can be maintained.
      • Veins
        • larger so less pressure can be maintained
      • Capillaries
        • 1 cell thick to allow a high diffusion rate
      • Heart
    • Transport within the blood - blood is made up of:
      • Plasma
        • involved in transport around the body
          • Carbon dioxide, blood cells, urea, digested food, hormones
      • Red blood cells
        • transport oxygen around the body
      • White blood cells
        • part of the body's defence for disease
      • Platelets
        • involved in the clotting of your blood
    • Transport systems in plants
      • Transpiration
        • process in which water moves up the xylem from the roots to evaporating out of the stomata
        • Factors affecting transpiration: light intensity, temperature, air movement. humidity
      • Translocation
        • the movement of sucrose (sugar solution) up the phloem.
    • Homeostasis
      • maintaining a constant balance which creates a state of equilibrium
    • Kidneys & Homeostasis
      • Removal of urea
      • Adjustment of ions in blood
      • adjustment of water content of the blood
    • Kidney Functions
      • 1. Ultra filtration
        • high pressure is built up
          • which squeezes water, urea, ions & sugar out of blood.
      • 2. Reabsorption
        • useful substances are reabsorbed back into blood:
          • 1. All sugar
            • 2. Sufficient ions
              • 3. Sufficient water
      • 3. Release of wastes
        • remaining substances e.g. urea are excreted.
    • Kidney Failure
      • Regular Dialysis
        • to filter the blood - remove waste substances
      • Transplant
        • kidney transplants can be rejected by the body
    • Controlling blood glucose
      • Insulin and glucose control blood glucose level
      • type 1 diabetes is caused by a lack of insulin
    • Energy drinks
      • replace lost water, sugar and ions
  • Red blood cells
    • transport oxygen around the body

Comments

Swallowtail

A very detailed map that incorporates most of the key ideas in AQA Biology B3 unit on exchange surfaces. There is good use of colour to separate the key ideas in the topic. It might be that fewer words would be helpful in conveying the concepts more easily and the addition of some images would help in the recall of the diagram.

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