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  • B3.1- Movement of molecules in and out of cells
    • B3.1.1 Dissolved substances
      • Diffusion
        • Movement of substances from a high concentration to a low concentration
        • Happens through a partially permeable membrane
      • Osmosis
        • Diffusion of water
        • From a high concentration to a low concentration
        • Happens in plants and animals
      • Active transport
        • Requires energy from respiration
        • Moves substances against the concentration gradient
      • Isotonic
        • Sports drinks replace sugars, ions and water
          • Without these cells do not work as efficiently
    • B3.1.2 Gaseous exchange
      • Lung location
        • Located in the upper thorax
        • Protected by the ribcage
        • Separated by the diaphragm
      • Lung movement
        • Lungs expand to allow air in
        • Lugs contract and push in to push the air out
      • Aveoli
        • Specialised cells in the lungs for diffusion
          • Large surface area
          • Thin rows of cells
          • Good blood supply
        • Other specialised cells
          • Villi in intestines
    • B3.1.3 Exchange systems in plants
      • Substances
        • CO2 Absorbed by leaves
        • Water and ions absorbed through roots
      • Roots
        • Increased surface area from root hairs
      • Leaves
        • Increased surface area from flattened shape and internal air spaces
        • Water vapour is lost through stomata in the leaves
      • Stomata
        • Surrounded by guard cells
        • Guard cells close together in times of drought to stop water loss
        • Guard cells open


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