B2- Understanding Our Environment

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  • Created by: KatieJ
  • Created on: 05-03-14 16:05
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  • B2- Understanding Our Environment
    • Classification and Living Together
      • Organisms are classified into discrete groups
        • This causes some problems with: intermediate organisms, hybrids and asexual organisms.
      • Organisms can: eat each other (predators), gain from each other (mutualism) or feed off each other (parasites).
      • Organisms are classified using natural systems.
        • This gives information about evolutionary relationships.
      • Similar organisms will compete with each other for food.
        • Organisms that share the same niche or are in the  same species will compete more.
    • Adaption and Natural Selection
      • Heat loss from organisms depends on their surface area to volume ratio.
        • Organisms in hot, dry areas have adaptions to: increase heat loss, move on sand and cope with a lack of water.
        • Organisms in cold conditions are adapted to: keep warm and move on the snow.
      • Darwin's theory of natural selection involves variation, competition, survival  of the fittest and selective reproduction.
        • Darwin's theory was widely criticised at first but is now widely accepted.
        • Examples of natural selection occurring today are: warfarin resistance in rats, antibiotic resistance in bacteria and frequency of colour in peppered moths.
    • Population, Pollution and Sustainability
      • Pollution can be measured using direct methods or indicator species.
      • Human population has been increasing exponentially.
        • This has lead to and increase in pollutants, such as: carbon dioxide causing global warming, sulphur dioxide causing acid rain and CFCs breaking down the ozone layer.
      • Removing waste, producing food and supplying energy in a sustainable way will help conserve habitats and organisms.
      • Conservation is important to:
        • Protect our food supply.
        • Prevent damage to food chains.
        • Protect organisms for medical uses.
        • Protect habitats for people to visit.
    • Energy Flow and Recycling
      • Pyramids of biomass and numbers can show feeding relationships.
      • Energy is lost from each stage of a food chain.
        • Pyramids of biomass are harder to construct but always form pyramids.
        • Food chains are limited to a small number of trophic levels.
      • The recycling of nitrogen involves the action of four types of bacteria.
      • The recycling of carbon involves: photosynthesis, feeding, respiration and decomposition.
  • Energy Flow and Recycling
    • Pyramids of biomass and numbers can show feeding relationships.
    • Energy is lost from each stage of a food chain.
      • Pyramids of biomass are harder to construct but always form pyramids.
      • Food chains are limited to a small number of trophic levels.
    • The recycling of nitrogen involves the action of four types of bacteria.
    • The recycling of carbon involves: photosynthesis, feeding, respiration and decomposition.

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