B2 - Topic 1 - The building blocks of cells - 1.1 & 1.2

B2

Topic 1

The building blocks of cells

1.1 & 1.2

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  • Created on: 06-04-14 23:28
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  • B2 - Topic 1 - The building blocks of cells - 1.1 & 1.2
    • Describe the function of the components of a bacterial cell including chromosomal DNA, plasmid DNA, flagella and cell wall
      • Bacterial cells are much smaller than plant or animal cells with some quite distinct and different features.
      • Plasmid DNA:
        • Plasmids are small hoops of extra DNA that are separate from the chromosomal DNA.
          • Plasmids contain genes that help tolerance against drugs and can be passed from one bacteria to another.
          • This is how the dangerous bacteria MSRA have evolved.
      • Chromosomal DNA:
        • One long strand of DNA comprises the single chromosome that controls the cells functions and the cell division of replication.
      • Flagella:
        • The flagellum is a long thin tail like structure that projects out of the body of the cell, and can rotate to move the bacteria along.
          • Some bacterial cells have more than one flagella (flagellum).
          • Each flagellum is effectively driven by a tiny biochemical electric motor with moving parts, mostly made of proteins!
          • It is quite a remarkable piece of biochemical engineering - bioengineering!
      • Cell wall:
        • The cell contents i.e. the cytoplasm, DNA etc. are all held together within the cell wall surface membrane which controls the passage of substances in and out of the cell.
      • Cytoplasm:
        • Cytoplasm is a jelly like fluid in which most of the cells chemical reactions take place with the aid of enzyme catalysts.
    • 1.2 Describe the function of the components of a plant cell including chloroplast, large vacuole, cell wall, cell membrane, mitochondria, cytoplasm and nucleus
      • Chloroplast:
        • The chloroplasts contain the green chlorophyll molecules which are involved in the energy absorbing process of photosynthesis.
          • sunlight energy + carbon dioxide + water ==> sugars e.g. glucose + oxygen
          • Therefore chloroplasts are the site of food production
      • Plant cells are much larger than bacterial cells, with important differences from animal cells.
      • Large vacuole:
        • The large vacuole in plant cells contains cell sap, a dilute solution of salts and sugars.
      • Cell wall:
        • The rigid cell wall in plant cells is made of cellulose and gives the cell membrane and contents extra support giving plants their rigidity - their stable 3D structure.
      • Cell membrane:
        • The cell contents i.e. the cytoplasm, nucleus, vacuole, mitochondria, chloroplasts etc. are all held together by the cell surface membrane which controls the passage of substances in and out of the cell.
      • Mitochondria:
        • The energy releasing chemistry of respiration occurs in the mitochondria.
          • e.g. glucose + oxygen ==> carbon dioxide + water + energy
          • B2 - Topic 1 The building blocks of cells
      • Cytoplasm:
        • Cytoplasm is a jelly like fluid in which most of the cells chemical reactions take place.
      • Starch grains:
        • Stored food for respiration
  • Nucleus:
    • 1.2 Describe the function of the components of a plant cell including chloroplast, large vacuole, cell wall, cell membrane, mitochondria, cytoplasm and nucleus
      • Chloroplast:
        • The chloroplasts contain the green chlorophyll molecules which are involved in the energy absorbing process of photosynthesis.
          • sunlight energy + carbon dioxide + water ==> sugars e.g. glucose + oxygen
          • Therefore chloroplasts are the site of food production
      • Plant cells are much larger than bacterial cells, with important differences from animal cells.
      • Large vacuole:
        • The large vacuole in plant cells contains cell sap, a dilute solution of salts and sugars.
      • Cell wall:
        • The rigid cell wall in plant cells is made of cellulose and gives the cell membrane and contents extra support giving plants their rigidity - their stable 3D structure.
      • Cell membrane:
        • The cell contents i.e. the cytoplasm, nucleus, vacuole, mitochondria, chloroplasts etc. are all held together by the cell surface membrane which controls the passage of substances in and out of the cell.
      • Mitochondria:
        • The energy releasing chemistry of respiration occurs in the mitochondria.
          • e.g. glucose + oxygen ==> carbon dioxide + water + energy
          • B2 - Topic 1 The building blocks of cells
      • Cytoplasm:
        • Cytoplasm is a jelly like fluid in which most of the cells chemical reactions take place.
      • Starch grains:
        • Stored food for respiration
    • The cell nucleus contains all the DNA of the genes in the chromosomes which control the cells functions and the cell division of replication. The nucleus controls the activities of the cell by sending instructions to the cytoplasm.

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